The practical recommendations of this Code of Practice are
intended for the use of all those, both in the public and in the
private sectors, who have responsibility for safety and health in
the building, civil engineering and public works industries. The
Code is not intended to replace national laws or regulations or
accepted standards. It has been drawn up with the object of
providing guidance to those who may be engaged in the framing
of provisions of this kind and, in particular, governmental or other
public authorities, committees in civil engineering or public works
establishments, and safety committees or management in related
Local circumstances and technical possibilities will determine
how far it is practicable to follow its provisions. Furthermore,
these provisions should be read in the context of conditions in the
country proposing to use this information. In this regard, the
needs of the developing countries have also been taken into
Building and civil engineering is an extremely comprehensive sub-
ject and it maybe divided into four main parts: work above ground,
work in open excavations, underground work and underwater work.
These parts can be subdivided in their turn. For instance, work
above ground can be divided into building construction, public
works construction and demolition. Detailed regulations have
been drawn up under all these headings and in many different
countries, and it is, therefore, not surprising that the present
document is voluminous.
Many of the provisions are common to all industries (for
instance, some of those concerning lifting appliances and gear,
machines, vehicles, welding, painting and handling materials)
but they have been included in the Code of Practice because it -
was felt that it should be as complete as practicable. The main
exception is maintenance and repair shops, which may be assimi-
lated to factories and thus come within the scope of the Model

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