31. Excavations
31.1. General provisions
31.1.1. Before excavation begins on any site, the stability
of the ground should be verified by a competent person.
31.1.2. Before work begins on any excavation site, the
employer should verify the position of all underground installa-
tions such as sewers, gas pipes, water pipes and electrical conduc-
tors that may cause danger during the work.
31.1.3. If necessary to prevent danger before an excavation
is started, gas, water, electrical and other public utilities should
be shut off or disconnected.
31.1.4. If underground pipes, conductors, etc. cannot be
removed or disconnected, they should be fenced, hung up or
otherwise protected.
31.1.5. If necessary to prevent danger, land should be cleared
of trees, boulders and other obstructions before excavation begins.
31.1.6. Sides of excavations should be thoroughly inspected:
after an interruption in work of more than one day;
after every blasting operation;
after an unexpected fall of ground;
after substantial damage to supports;
after a heavy frost;
after heavy rain; and
when boulder formations are encountered.
31.1.7. Safe means of access and egress should be provided
to every place where persons are employed in excavation.
31.1.8. No person should work on loose ground if the slope
is too steep to ensure a safe foothold.
31.1.9. When ground does not ensure a safe foothold, ade-
quate support should be provided.

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