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  • Las inspecciones e intervenciones corporales a propósito del perfeccionamiento del proceso penal cubano

    La investigación aborda los presupuestos teóricos, normativos y comparados acerca de las inspecciones e intervenciones corporales, lo que pone de manifiesto su necesaria y correcta formulación como diligencias de investigación en el proceso penal cubano, con vistas a una mayor protección y garantía de los derechos del ciudadano, debido a que se generan dificultades en la práctica jurídica con su aplicación. Se define como Objetivo general: Fundamentar el perfeccionamiento del proceso penal cubano en cuanto a la formulación de las inspecciones e intervenciones corporales, a partir de la teorización de los elementos fundamentales, el estudio comparado y el análisis de la normativa cubana acerca de estas instituciones, a fin de la protección de los derechos fundamentales de los procesados y víctimas del delito y el respeto al debido proceso. Se utilizan como Métodos Científicos: Análisis, Síntesis e Inductivo-Deductivo, el Análisis Jurídico Comparado, el Histórico Jurídico, Exegético Jurídico y el Teórico Jurídico. Los resultados son: Sistematización teórica de los fundamentos y elementos conceptuales acerca de las inspecciones e intervenciones corporales, a partir de los argumentos de la doctrina internacional y nacional y Propuesta pautas normativas en relación a la modificación de la Ley de Procedimiento Penal cubana con respecto a las inspecciones e intervenciones corporales, con la finalidad de reconocer derechos, garantías en el proceso penal, teniendo en cuenta el análisis exegético de las normas adjetivas penales en cuestión.

  • Elementos de un correcto enjuiciamiento
  • Guest editorial
  • Editorial
  • 3D Digitisation of Cultural Heritage Copyright Implications of the Methods, Purposes and Collaboration

    3D technology is increasingly used in the digitisation of cultural heritage and while parties engaging in such projects need copyright as an incentive, the copyright status of such 3D models are unclear. It is usually assumed they would not be protected, as the scans of existing objects are less likely to be original compared to the 3D models created from scratch. However, it is often overlooked that these projects vary greatly in terms of the chosen method (whether it is laser scanning or photogrammetry), the project’s purpose (if it is for identical copying or if there is any restoration or creative contribution involved) and the collaboration of different people (ranging from employees to volunteers). This article will discuss the copyright implications of the chosen method, purposes and the level of collaboration, in order to show that each of these factors impact the category, originality and the authorship of the resulting work. It will be argued that it is possible, and in some instances very likely, for 3D projects to lead to protectable outcomes under the EU copyright law.

  • El contrato de prenda sobre bienes agropecuarios en Cuba. Insuficiencias en la regulación y constitución

    La presente investigación toma como referente los problemas socio-jurídicos que genera la regulación de la prenda sobre bienes agropecuarios en torno a su delimitación y regulación en el ordenamiento jurídico cubano, haciendo especial énfasis en los cambios normativos efectuados a partir de la promulgación del Decreto Ley 289/2011 del Consejo de Estado, De los Créditos a las personas naturales y otros servicios bancarios, complementado por la Instrucción No. 1/2013, del ministro-Presidente del Banco Central de Cuba. Para su desarrollo se delimitó como problema de investigación: insuficiencias en el régimen jurídico del contrato de prenda sobre bienes agropecuarios en su configuración teórica y legal que tiene por base la indelimitación normativa de su contenido en el ordenamiento jurídico cubano. Planteándose como objetivo general: argumentar la necesidad de implementación de pautas teóricas para una efectiva regulación del contrato de prenda, a partir de una sistematización doctrinal, comparada y exegética del régimen jurídico de la institución en sede agropecuaria, en aras de su perfeccionamiento en el Derecho contractual cubano. Trazándose como objetivos específicos: sistematizar los fundamentos teóricos, históricos y de Derecho comparado del contrato de prenda como base para las pautas teóricas en sede agropecuaria y diagnosticar las insuficiencias que en el orden normativo presenta el contrato de prenda en sede agropecuaria, a partir de la estructuración de sus presupuestos teóricos, en pos del perfeccionamiento de la institución en Cuba. Apoyados en métodos investigativos de las Ciencias Sociales, los propios de las Ciencias Jurídicas. Finalmente se arribó a conclusiones y recomendaciones.

  • The Quality of Law: How the European Court of Human Rights gradually became a European Constitutional Court for privacy casest

    Until very recently, the European Court of Human Rights was willing to assess whether Member States’ executive branch had operated on a legal basis, whether national courts had struck a fair balance when adjudicating cases, and whether Member States had a positive obligation to ensure adequate protection of citizens’ human rights. One thing it did not assess however, was whether Member States’ legislative branch had respected the principles of the rule of law and the minimum requirements of good law-making. That is, until recently. Propelled by cases revolving around mass surveillance activities, in just a small number of years, the Court has undergone a revolutionary transformation and now formally assesses the quality of Member States’ laws and even advises Member States’ legislative branch on how to amend its legal system in order to be Convention- compliant. Doing so, it has gradually turned into a European Constitutional Court, in particular for privacy cases.

  • Debts, Money, Intellectual Property, Data and the Concept of Dematerialised Property

    Debts, (electronic) money, intellectual property, and, in principle, data and digitised objects (if ownership rights are to be recognised for these), can be conceptualised as versions of the general principle of dematerialised property. This article discusses first the concept of dematerialised property and its application to debts, money and intellectual property. Then it deals with the idea of ownership of data within traditional property concepts. While data ownership can theoretically be accommodated fairly easily within the framework of dematerialised property, there are several reasons, both theoretical and from a legal policy perspective, which make the introduction of data ownership modelled upon conventional (intellectual) property rights problematic.

  • Secondary communication under the EU copyright acquis after Tom Kabinet: Between exhaustion and securing work's exploitation

    Since the adoption of the InfoSoc Directive, the CJEU has been dealing with a variety of questions on the interpretation of the broad right of communication to the public. A substantial share of the references for a preliminary ruling concerns secondary communication, which relies on communication initially authorised by the right holder. Despite the seemingly clear language of Article 3(3) of the InfoSoc Directive denying the exhaustion of communication right, the Court has occasionally exempted secondary acts from the authorisation of the right holder, relying on the arguments resembling the exhaustion principle of the right of distribution in respect of the tangible copies of a work. In the recent Tom Kabinet judgment, the CJEU denied the direct application of the principle in the case of the resale of e-books facilitated by the Tom Kabinet platform. Whereas the judgment is of significance to the future of the exhaustion principle under the acquis, this article focuses on its broader implications on secondary communication. The article argues that the decision is in line with the developments under the jurisprudence but is by no means a final say on the extent of exclusive control over secondary communication in the digital environment. Besides raising the question of appropriate boundaries of the exclusive rights and their role in the digital markets, the judgment invites the legislator to revise the framework and restore the legal certainty in respect of the scope of exclusive control over the work’s communication to the public.

  • Conceptualizations of the controller in permissionless blockchains

    The relationship between blockchain and the General Data Protection Regulation (hereinafter GDPR) is often described as problematic. This article addresses one of the problems blockchain faces: who is/are the controller(s) in a blockchain context? This article demonstrates that it is particularly difficult to identify the controller in blockchain applications that are integrated in the core code of a permissionless blockchain. The P2P character of blockchains, with its broad distribution of responsibilities, makes it difficult to ascertain who is able to determine purposes and means of the processing of data. In order to structure the discussion, this article develops three conceptualizations of cooperation within a blockchain. These conceptualizations give different perspectives on the relations between the actors in a blockchain that are potential controllers. The article identifies who is most likely to be the controller in the different conceptualizations and gives indications about the extent to which the controllers are able to exercise their responsibilities. A problem is that an adequate exercise of responsibility requires coordination within the blockchain. However, the system that normally takes care of coordination in a permissionless blockchain - the crypto-economic incentive system - is at present not able to provide adequate data protection.