Indigenous Rights Before the Inter-American Court of Court of Human Rights: a Call for a Pro Individual Interpretation

Autor:Valério de Oliveira Mazzuoli/Dilton Ribeiro
Páginas:138-162
RESUMO

Na sua concepção tradicional, o direito internacional regula as relações entre Estados soberanos. Esta definição é desafiado por desenvolvimentos atuais do direito internacional, em especial na área dos direitos humanos. A pessoa humana é, sem dúvida, um portador de direitos e deveres sob o direito internacional. No entanto, reconhecendo essa personalidade jurídica individual não é suficiente. Órg... (ver resumo completo)

 
TRECHO GRÁTIS
138
X ANUÁRIO BRASILEIRO DE DIREITO INTERNACIONAL
INDIGENOUS RIGHTS BEFORE THE INTER-AMER ICAN COURT OF
HUMAN RIGHTS: A CALL FOR A PRO INDIVIDUAL INTERPRETATION
Valerio De Oliveira Mazzuoli1
Dilton Ribeiro2
ABSTRACT
In its traditional conception, international law regulates relations between
sovereign states. This definition is challenged by current developments of
international law, especially in the area of human rights. The human person is
arguably a bearer of rights and duties under international law. However, recognizing
this individual legal personality is not enough. International bodies and treaties need
to acknowledge that individuals are subjects of international law within a pluralistic
world. In other words, the law of nations must crystalize the idea that individuals are,
with all their cultural differences, subjects of international law. The Inter-American
Court of Human Rights recognizes this view through its pro homine principle, which
informs that human rights instruments must seek the best possible protection for the
human person. In this interpretative framework, the Inter-American Court crystalized
a body of norms protecting indigenous rights and their cultural and historical
backgrounds within the general protection system of the American Convention. The
extensive interpretation of rights articulates a new view on the individual legal
personality. Accordingly, this article seeks to understand this approach based on key
decisions of the Inter-American Court of Human Rights on indigenous cases.
Keywords: International Law, International Human Rights; Indigenous Rights, Inter-
American Court Of Human Rights.
RESUMO
Na sua concepção tradicional, o direito internacional regula as relações entre
Estados soberanos. Esta definição é desafiado por desenvolvimentos atuais do direito
internacional, em especial na área dos direitos humanos. A pessoa humana é, sem
dúvida, um portador de direitos e deveres sob o direito internacional. No entanto,
reconhecendo essa personalidade jurídica individual não é suficiente. Órgãos e
tratados internacionais devem reconhecer que os indivíduos são sujeitos de direito
1International Law and Human Rights Professor ( Federal University of Mato Grosso, Brazil), Postdoctoral
Fellow in Law and Political Sciences (University of Lisbon, Portugal), PhD Holder summa cum laude in
International Law (Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil), LLM (São Paulo State University,
Brazil). E-mail:mazzuoli@ufmt.br.
2PhD Candidate (Queen’s University, Canada), LLM (University of Manitoba, Canada ), LLB (Southwest
Bahia State University, Br azil). E-mail: 11drfr@queensu.ca.
139
Indigenous Rights before the Inter-American Court of Human Rights: a Call for a Pro Individual
Interpretation
internacional dentro de um mundo pluralista. Em outras palavras, o direito das
nações deve cristalizar a idéia de que os indivíduos são, com todas as suas diferenças
culturais, sujeitos de direito internacional. A Corte Interamericana de Direitos
Humanos reconhece essa visão através do seu princípio pro homine, que informa que
os instrumentos de direitos humanos devem buscar a melhor protecção possível para
a pessoa humana. Neste quadro interpretativo, a Corte Interamericana cristalizado um
conjunto de normas de proteção dos direitos indígenas e de suas origens culturais e
históricas dentro do sistema da Convenção Americana de proteção geral. A
interpretação extensiva dos direitos articula uma nova visão sobre a personalidade
jurídica individual. Assim, este artigo procura compreender esta abordagem com
base em decisões importantes da Corte Interamericana de Direitos Humanos sobre
casos indígenas.
Palavras-Chave: Direito Internacional, Direitos Humanos Internacionais; Direitos
Indígenas; Corte Interamericana De Direitos Humanos.
SUMMARY: 1. Introduction 2. Inter-American system of human rights in a
multicultural world 3. The application of a multicultural and individual-centered
interpretation by the Inter-American Court of Human Rights 4. Conclusion.
INTRODUCTION
The recognition of multiculturalism is unquestionably one of the most
significant post-Second World War movements stemmed from the notion of
individual personality and human centrality. It is intrinsically linked to the
conception of the human person as a bearer of cultural characteristics that are
indispensable to a full and useful existence and that, consequently, must always be
observed and respected. Political philosophy, especially after the 1980s, made room
for debate and the development of multiple conceptions of multiculturalism. This
debate, which soon later became a concern of law and for lawyers, was strongly
rooted in a divergence between communitarians and liberals, and many questions and
different philosophical theories and perspectives still surround this discussion.3
3In political philosophy, the debate on multiculturalism, which relates to a body of ideas concerning legal
accommodation and policies of ethnic diversity, is strongly divided between the liberal and communitarian
approaches. Liberals essent ially argue that individuals mu st be free to decide their own conc ept of good
life and not be constrained by any enforced or inherited condition. Conversely, communitarians affirm that
every human being is connected through roles in social relations. Kymlicka argues differently by asserting
that debates concerning individuals and groups reach a consensus on liberalism and democracy, but
disagree on the interpretation of these principles in multi ethnic and multinational societi es. For a general
view on the concept of mult iculturalism, on the lib eral and communitarian dichotom y, and on the
characteristics or argument of mu lticulturalism, see ,e.g., Charles Taylor, Interculturalism or
Multiculturalism?, 38 PHILOSOPHY & SOCIAL CRITICISM 413 (2012); JOHN ARTHUR, THE
OXFORD HANDBOOK OF PRACTICAL ETHICS (Hugh LaFollette ed., 200 5); BHIKHU PAREKH,
RETHINKING MULTICULTURALISM (2000); MICHAEL MURPHY, MULTICULTURALISM: A
CRITICAL INTRODUCTION (2012); Int erview by Verena Risse and Martin Vezér with Will Kymlicka,

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