JURIDICA INTERNATIONAL 28/2019
Ilya Ilin Aleksei Kelli
Doctoral student Professor of Intellectual Property Law
University of Tartu University of Tartu
The Use of Human Voice
and Speech in Language
The EU and Russian Intellectual Property Law Perspectives
Language technologies (LTs) have become an integral part of our everyday lives.*1 This article focuses on
the legal aspects of these technologies. Several legal challenges related to LTs have already been extensively
addressed (e.g., issues related to personal data, dissemination models, constitutional bases).*2 The authors
draw on previous research and extend it. In this paper, the authors concentrate on the legal status of voice
and speech from an intellectual property*3 (IP) perspective and on compatibility of the respective EU and
Russian legal regimes. Because of this di erent focus of the article, it does not cover issues related to the
protection of voice and speech in terms of personal data rights in the EU and Russia. These issues are
analysed in a separate paper.*4
Examples of such technologies are automatic text translation, various services that provide language checks for writing, and
applications that vocalise text with an integrated speech-to-speech translation function. In October , Google demon-
strated its brand-new headphones (Pixel Buds), which have an integrated speech-to-speech translation function.
See, e.g., J. Klavan, A. Tavast, A. Kelli (). The Legal Aspects of Using Data from Linguistic Experiments for Creating
Language Resources. – Frontiers in Artiﬁ cial Intelligence and Applications (), pp. Е. Abstract available at http://
ebooks.iospress.nl/volumearticle/ (..); S. Calamai, C. Kolletzek, A. Kelli (). Towards a Protocol for the
Curation and Dissemination of Vulnerable People Archives. In: Inguna Skadin, Maria Eskevich (eds.). CLARIN Annual
Conference Proceedings (CLARIN Annual Conference , – October , in Pisa, Italy). CLARIN (pp. Е).
Available at https://o ce.clarin.eu/v/CE---CLARIN_ConferenceProceedings.pdf (..); A. Kelli,
K. Lindén, K. Vider, P. Labropoulou, E. Ketzan, P. Kamocki, P. Straák (). Implementation of an Open Science Policy
in the Context of Management of CLARIN Language Resources: A Need for Changes? In: Selected Papers from the CLARIN
Annual Conference (pp. Е). Linköping, Sweden: Linköping University Electronic Press. Available at https://
www.ep.liu.se/ecp///ecp.pdf (..); A. Kelli, K. Vider, H. Pisuke, T. Siil (). Constitutional Values
As a Basis for the Limitation of Copyright within the Context of Digitalization of the Estonian Language. In: Kalvis Torgans
(ed.). Constitutional Values in Contemporary Legal Space II, – November : Collection of Research Papers in
Conjunction with the th International Scientiﬁ c Conference of the Faculty of Law of the University of Latvia (pp. Е).
Riga, Latvia: University of Latvia Press. – DOI: https://doi.org/./cvcls...
Intellectual property (IP) is deﬁ ned as rights resulting from intellectual activity in industrial, scientiﬁ c, literary, or artistic
ﬁ elds. Convention Establishing the World Intellectual Property Organization (signed in Stockholm on July and as
amended on September ). Available at https://wipolex.wipo.int/en/text/ (..). IP is traditionally
divided into three main categories: ) copyright, ) related rights, and ) industrial property. The article addresses copyright
and related rights.
See I. Ilin, A. Kelli (). The Use of Human Voice and Speech for the Development of Language Technologies: The EU and
Russian Data Protection Law Perspectives (forthcoming).