Trespass to Airspace: How to Deter North Korea from Its Space Ambitions?

Author:Kelly Kuan Shang
Position:Ph.D. candidate (Maastricht). J.D. (Hong Kong)
Pages:221-240
SUMMARY

In deterring North Korea from pursuing its space ambitions, the neighbouring States may consider to advance a sovereignty argument that North Korea’s overflying rockets have trespassed to their territorial airspace. The current UNSC Resolution-based arguments may not provide adequate deterrence because they are built upon a unilateral interpretation of the UNSC Resolutions and therefore lack... (see full summary)

 
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North Korea's Space Ambitions 221
VI JEAIL 1 (2013)
Kelly Kuan Shang
In deterring North Korea from pursuing its space ambitions, the neighbouring
States may consider to advance a sovereignty argument that North Korea󼚩s
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      
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Keywords
Satellite Launch, Air Sovereignty, NPT, Outer Space Treaty, Ballistic
Missile, Right of Innocent Passage.
Trespass to Airspace:
How to Deter North Korea
from Its Space Ambitions?
Ph.D. candidate (Maastricht). J.D. (Hong Kong). The author wishes to thank Prof. Tony Carty and Prof. Yun Zhao
for their invaluable help in preparing this article, as well as Prof. Eric Yong-Joong Lee for his insightful comments
on earlier drafts. She can be contacted at: kelly.shang@maastrichtuniversity.nl /Address: P.O. Box 616, NL-6200
MD Maastricht, The Netherlands.
2013-05-27 󱹙󲻹 2:25:16
222 Kelly Shang
I. Introduction
On December 12, 2012, the Democratic Peoples󼚩 Republic of Korea (hereinafter
North Korea; 󼚬DPRK󼚭) stunned the world with its space ambitions by attempting to
launch an 󼚨Earth-observation󼚩 satellite.
1
Although the international community has
repeatedly condemned North Korea prior to the launch for breaching the United
Nations Security Council (󼚬UNSC󼚭) Resolutions 1718
2
and 1874,
3
North Korea󼚩s
determination still remained unaffected. As today󼚩s space technology can be easily
converted to manufacture ballistic missiles, it is a matter of concern that North
Korea󼚩s space activities would eventually become a threat to the world security in
the future.
The primary objective of this research is to suggest a possible solution in
effectively deterring North Korea from its growing space ambitions. This article
     
the overview of the present scenario by reviewing the history of North Korean
space launches and the challenges that such activities can bring to the international
security. Part three will examine the current international condemnations against
North Korea for breaching the UNSC Resolutions 1718 and 1874. Here, the author
will address that this UNSC argument cannot afford adequate deterrence to North
Korea󼚩s ambitions. Part four will suggest that a more effective solution for North
Korea󼚩s neighbouring countries is to advance a sovereignty argument that North
Korea󼚩s satellite launching vehicles have trespassed to their territorial airspace. This
part will also discuss a possible counter-argument of North Korea based on a 󼚬right
of innocent passage󼚭 over foreign airspace for its space activates because North
Korea is geographically disadvantaged from accessing the outer space without
trespassing the territorial airspace of other countries.
1 Sang-Hun Choe & D. Sanger, North Koreans Launch Rocket in Defiant Act, N.Y. TIMES, Dec. 12, 2012, available
at http://www.nytimes.com/2012/12/12/world/asia/north-korea-launches-rocket-defying-likely-sanctions.html (last
visited on Mar. 2, 2013).
2 S.C. Res. 1718, U.N. Doc. S/RES/1718 (Oct. 14, 2006), available at http://www.un.org/ga/search/view_doc.
asp?symbol=S/RES/1718 (2006) (last visited on Mar. 2, 2013). For details, see Eric Yong Joong Lee, Legal Analysis
of the 2006 U.N. Security Council Resolutions against North Korea’s WMD Development, 31 FORDHAM J. INTL L.
8-12 (2007).
3 S.C. Res. 1874, U.N. Doc. S/RES/1874 (Jun. 12, 2009). See also D. Joyner, Introductory Note to the United Nations
Security Council Resolution 1874, 48:5 I.L.M. 1174-1175 (2009).
2013-05-27 󱹙󲻹 2:25:16

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