The European Union Public Licence (EUPL)

Author:Patrice-Emmanuel Schmitz
Position:Legal expert
Pages:121-135
 



 !!∀#

!∃%!%&∃∋%!%! %
()∗∀∃ !
! %+(,&%∃,%% !!
%+∀! %%%!∃ %∃(+
%−∋∋!!%!+!∃ %∃ 
%,.+∀(∋∋%!∀% %∀!!+
/%∋0!%1!%!∋%&+0&∀(
! +%!( !%%−% 2!% %
∃%!∀!!%∃%∋%%,(∋0&%!
, %3∀4  %%&%%,% 
%!, %∋% %!,%!∋!%! 
!%(!∋%∋!+&,∃!%∃!!!%, 
3!&4!!% !,∃∀∃%!

+5 ∋%%&,56∃)) %+5
55

6∋  %  %  −∋∋!! − !%%∃ !&(  % %&
&∋∋! ∃∃%∃%  & %%, ∃ % ∃∀∋% %  ∋%
)%,( %∃∀%&!   ∃%&%   !6)) ∋∃  !& ! %+
!!   ∃! +% % ( !∃  % !    !%∃∃!   %
!!+! 3%−∋∋!!!∃ ∃,7∋( ∃!%%%! +∃∃! %+
∃%&%!%8∋)%%!%∃ %!∋49!!!∃∃ 
,! %+!&∃!%% !&(∃%&(%(%−!%%1∋%! 
%!%∋!%
&%6)! %+ ∃∋!5
3:%)!& ! %+∃∀∃,−∋∋!!4(;%∋<(
%%%!=,!∗!∗!&∗! %+∗∃∀∃∗∗∋∋!!∗
∃∗∗!%∗
%%6∃)) %++:∀+ >(!!

 !  %% ∋ 7 !∀ ! %+ % %    3! 04 
3, %45
∀ +0& ∀    &&!! % ! ∃ !+ %!%! 
−%∃%∃!%%%! %!%!5
< ∋+%,&%+∃%∋&,5
 ∃ %3∋∋% % % 4 &%( ∃&/ ∃!%%  ) %+! 
)∀∗)) !!(%! %+ !%∃!%%∃! ∃+∃∃0&! −∗
:∋(%!−∃−∋%&%%%∋%!!!!∀%%5
; ,%+∃∋%%%(!1!%∃,!%%%!5
?+%!∃%, ∋%,+% 3−!+4&7! %,
!%∀∃ ∋!%%!5∃
≅%%&(%∋7(%∋!∀∃&∋%
∋,!%∃!∃% <(!+∃ %%7!%& +! ∃%%∋∃
+%% !%   % 0,1∋%! ΑΒ( <(; ∃?  (% ∃!% +%
34+!%09 % !%%%% ∀∃∃!!%%∋∀∋%!<( %
!!  %%∃ % % +%&    %   +0  ∋  % &  %∋  +!
∋∋%∃,%%! ∋:+,! ∋8∋)%%!
9!!%( %∀!+! % ∃∀∃, %)%%∀) 
8 #) %( ∃ %, ∃& %!%  + ∋%!( % !   %  
!& =%! !  &+& !%&,  !% ,, ∃∗ ∗, ∀% 
%∃ % =%! !∋  %∋ +%  % !∃ !( ∃+ =%! 
!∃∀, +0 ∋%!!%∃ %  %∃!%% %!
!%6))=%
  −∋∋!!!∃! %% %  !%  3∀%, 4 + % ∋
∋%∀% %%!=!%% &3%!+4∃%%%!∋%% ;(%!+!%
∋ ∀%!!!(!%%& ∋% %%%&∀∋%!∃!%&!%!
& %&,&∃%!!%∋%!+%+0&∀%
&&1∋% ΑΒ9%!% %∃∃%%! +!∋%% % ,ΑΒ<(
;(?%∋&,(+∋%%%(∃+%,∃%,∃!∋!
%%! % !%% 1% %( ∀ % ∀& ))! % 1%
%)? ∃% ΧΑ9 Χ !% % Χ∀ !%!!∋
%!%! %!!  %)∋ ! %% ∀,∋!!∀ !(0
 !%∀!+!!!7%%!! %%! ∃∀!
:%)!& ! %+∃∀∃,%−∋∋!!(%(!∃∃%)
!%!%∃!∃%+%!∃%&%)+%&! −∋∋!!%∃ 
+%&%
< :%%∋! !%%%%(%Α∀∋(%
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 %%%+++%<∋&
; !34!∃∃!!∃%!%%%!0%Α9)9( %∀% %∋% %Α)9Α!
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? %%%!&!!)∗
≅ %%%!&!!9Χ∗
%%6∃)) %++:∀+ >(!!
 
%Γ)%8∋!%(%%!∋∋,0+∃&∃%%%!!
∃∋!∀∋∃+%!∋%3, %4!#

 %, ∃,!    ! ! %+ ∋&% % , % ΧΑΧ∀
∃ %! Χ 3,4∀% + ∃%∃, !∋ #Ε   6)) =%!)
%( % ∋ ∃ % 1,   !   % ! ∀ !∃ !%&,) !
 ,3∀∃4 ∋%; ! Χ∀∃9Χ∀ %∃∃? ∀
%  ∃  %  ∀!  Χ∀(  +  !% !∋!  %    %  ∋!%  !∃    &  ,
ΧΑ7)∋ ∋%%!!!=%! ∃∀ , ∃%!9( 8Η%
∋%&%6))!) %∋,!∃∃ %%(!
%!∋∃%+0  ∃∀!∋∋7!%!!%%%  &∋%%,
%%%∋ ∃!%%(+−!% ∃!∋%6))∋%!.+∀(%
0! %   ∃ %∀ % , ∀, +0( + !  ∃ %∃  %!0  3)
 ∀+!4! ∃!∃  %∃  ∃% !∋! ∃!!( ∀ !∃& %%
, !∋% ! %%∃ )∗∋%∀ !∋%%∃ %%∋%,
∃%%,∀∋,+!−−!17%! 
∋!% %!!    %( % !! ! ,!%∋% !&
%%,  %+  %%,  ∋%  !!  !  +      !  !
!∃% ∗ &∀∋%!& Ι −∃( + ∀!0∃ ∋!! %
∃%%!! %!%!%∋%  %+∃!&& ∋!∃=!∃%
,  ! !( ∋%& % !∋ !%   ∋% ! ∋, !%&, ∃ %
∋% ! %
)∋,(%+ )∀∃ ∀!  %−− !∃, %6
∃∋!%%+∃!%∃%Χ9Χ∀!∃+!%∋∋%!(
+0!!%∀ ∃∀! ∋%∋∋%!

9%%  %!% % !% %  % %%, 6∋+0
6∃ % !∃!   (!,  ! %+1∋%! ∃∋%
&∋%!<      +%  %    ∋!%  ∃%!   %  %%,  %  ∃
# %(!∋,!%!+∃!%∃,%∋7%, %Χ∀%%!,%%∋!&6
7∋(!%0%∃∀!&!%∋%(!∋∃%%%(+%!!&&&%
%Χ∀36∃∋∃!!&Φ−∋&%∀∃%Χ∀4(%
%%+++7∋+!Η∗!&≅?<#∗ ∃∋∗∃∗∗∗∗!∗!&∗∋&∗%∗∗∀∗
∃∗%∗&∗∀
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 %%=%!!&∋!∗∃!!!
 %%!&∃ ∃%!&
 %%!&!!−−∗
< )%Χ∃ %∋% !%∃∃∗!∃−∋%! Χ∃%(∋!(
8(∀%%%∃! ?%!!∃!!%∃,∗%∃∗&∃!∗ ∃ %∗
∗∃ ∃%)9!%∃∃3)&∃!&!!4(∀%
%%=,∃∋%!∆!∆!∆∃∆∗∗!%∃∃∗!&∗∃∗∗!&∗!!∗%%!
 (%8!%Χ∀∋%∋!%∃%!%%∃38∋)%%!+(∃&%∃;∗
(!%&!(+%∃∀∋∋!%!∃+0%+∃!% ∋!% 
7!%&!%!4% ∃ ∋%(∃#(%8∋ϑ∋!%∃%Χ∀∋%
!%%∃3)∋∃∃∋%∃ !Χ∀∋%=%!4%
%%6∃)) %++:∀+ >(!!
<
∃∀∋% !%! , !& ∃ !& ! %+( %%& %%! !∃ % ∋
%!!%&%( %,%!% !!∀%&%! %∃!%%%∃∀∃
! %+ % %(! %! ∋, &! %∃∀∋% !!!! (%!%&
%!%0∃!(∃ !&∃!!%0,%%%!
 ( !!∋!% % , !!& ! % %%%& %%, % : %
!%∃&%! %+∃(%∋!%!&%%%%&,∃!%%∃
%%∃ %! ,% %%&%%,( +%%, ,&% &∋% !! 
 %!  !∀ ∋%!   %!% + ∃!%%∃ ∃ ∗∋% 6))
! ∃ ,%,  & % %  % !%%  +!∋ %, !%∃∃ 
%%!+∋∋%∃
97∋; !∀!!
     !∀ 
!#!! ∃∀∃#%% 
 #!!&∋∃(
) %%!!,∀%∃%%!∋%∗&∀∃%,% %
 ∋%! %!+%%,&& %
 !
 &%! &%∃ , %    %  % % %!   %∀∃ /0  ∗
∋∃ ∃ %&  ∀!!   % ! ,  %! 1∃ , %  )
 %)%!(∃(∋∃ ,(∋∋%(∃∗∃!%%%+0
 ∃∃%( % ! !%%∃  %  %% % 7!   ! &%! ∃% !   !!,
!%%! ,∋!%,%, :6!∋!%%∋,!! %++0!
∀∃,%&  ∋!∋!%&%%%%∃∀∋%!%! 
!%∃∃ ! %+ !%( 7∃∋%  !% !∀!%(%
%!! ∃(,  %7%%  % ∀∃/0%!  %% !!, &+0
!&%! %+% !=%%%,∋% ,%!&  Φ∀!∋
!Φ!!
!    :6 !&( 7!!, ∋%∃  %    % ( !  %
∃∋% % , 6)) !&/  ∃∋ ! &%∃ %  !! %!  %
+∃%7 %∃∋0 ∃∀%∀+0!∃ %∃!%%! +0!%,( %%
% !   % && ,%! ∋! ∋!! % ∋∋%  % 9!
&&%∃  +0!&!∃ ,% −?(%! ! ,%% %&%∃ ,
∋,!%%%!(0%!%∃∃!∃∀&&!%!)( +∋∃∀∋%!%!
∃ %  ∀∃( +! ∋, &%∋% .+∀(  !  ! )! +%%
! %!%∋∋%∃,6)) ∋∋%!∃!∀%!%!,∃%&
6:9Α   ! ∃  ∃!∋%& !& ,( %, ∃ ∃ + ∀ %
%%∃&%∗&∃!%!∃&%∗&∃ !∋!%∗∃%∗∗&∀∋%∗∋∋∃ 
; !7∋!&∀9∃7 %Χ∃∋,&%−∋∋!!∋∋%39&!%
0∗∃&−!,!%∋!,∋0&%%! !%∃∃!∋%4∗−8<
)/<(%2
? Χ%!+0!(∃Α∀∋3∋∋%&6:9Α!%∃∃!)Γ!!!!!
∋!!∋!!Κ4(%∃%
%%%!!%!%!%∃∃!7%∃∃∀%∆∆!∆%∋
%%6∃)) %++:∀+ >(!!
 
∋&%%∀ !%!& &∋%!+% 6))!%%∀  ∃%! ∃
!&, :6  6))∋∋%%!( !,%! !! %!! ∃
+ !%%  !%&, !∃ !+∃ % ∃!∋%, &!%
∗6))%,( !%%∋∋%%!(!6))!%&(∃%
%&,(%&&∋%%,∋,∃% ∃!%%&! %+≅
∀# ! ∃%&
!! ∃∃ % ∋%6))!∋ %!
8%&!∋ 
! % !% ∋!% ∀! 0 ∋, %  & !%∋%!( %
!∀&&!Χ∃−%∀!∀,%%!∃
∋&,
 ! ∃ %∃% +0 ∃ +( ∀ % ∋, !∃ %!∃%
 ∃ !∋%%∃% %∃ %,%! :∀% ∀!!∃ %
,&% %∋&, %3∋∋% % % 4( %∋%%  %,
!(∃% %%%!
/%,
 ∀∃+0 ! !∃+%% +%,( 7% ∋%% % &
!∃ ∀,!!1%%% +%%% %,% %! !!
+%! % &%! % +%%! ! !% !%, ∃ ,
%  &∃& !! ,&%  &∋%! ∃ !  % ∃ % %,
1∋% %%   ∃!   ∋!%  ! %%  &∋%!
: %%−%
0&∃∀%& % %%!6( %+ %  ∋%%%, 
1=!∃%  ! %&%% −%  2!%  %  
∃∃%(%≅8∋)%%!=!∃%!∋,∃∃!! 1!%!∃!+∃,
!&−%
>3−, %4
 !3, %4 ! ∃∃ !(% %!!∗0  %!( %
%!% !%%,(∀#% ! ∋∃∃∀%∀+0!(!
∃!!!∃ +  ∃∋% ! ! % ∀∃ 7!∀ %   %
∀∃! %+
∋ !(
9! ∋ (% −Λ!=%∀ !%  %! & %0%∃& % ∋
! %+!&( ! ∃%%,+0, =%∀! !∃ ∋%%,(∃
≅ )%)∋−%∃!−%−!%%Η(∃8
%%+++%!%%Η%%)∃∃ΚΜΝ∋Μ(∋∋%∃,−
6)):>(Α( !!∀≅
# % Ο∀, %Π+!∃ %,:+/!7 ∃∀!%,%%+++!!∗
+%0!!
%%6∃)) %++:∀+ >(!!
;
∃%&%% & ∋+0 % ∃( 3, %4 ∋!%%% &!%
%(   %! ∋, ! %  & ! %+ 6)) ∋∋%!
 %∃!∃7 3∋%!4∀∃&%%,+%
!% !∋!!∃;!%∃,.+∀(,%!!%+!%∃%∃%
% ∃(!∀ &!  %  & ∋+0 % %,   % !
%,  # ∋% %%  +∀!  %  +! !∃∃( ∀!  (∃ 
+0&∃ %+!!∋%%∃%!%%! ∋∋∃∗∋%
 %+ ∀!+!∃&, ,2(% ∃%%!% ∃&!%
!!%!+∋!∃,%∃ 
∀+!%% +&∋∃ !+%%∀!∀
∋&,!∃%∃ !∃% % !%,%!! %∋
!%%%!∃% !%%6%!<(5
+∀!3%/04Φ∀!(% ∃%%3%/04∃%
3%) %+4(++!  !&/0! %+(%!, %0∃
  ,&%∃ +0  ,&%∃  ∃%(  ! %!( ∃∋%%  %  Φ %
∋∃ %!∃%%∃%∃%!(<∃?5
 !   !!  3∃∃%  &∋%!4 !  &∃   %,  ∋, ∀
=!∃%∃,%∀!!(! !%&%∃ &%!%!%%∃Φ
%#5
!%  ∋% !! 7%∃∃% ! !∃ % %% 
ΧΑΧ∀(9Χ∀(8∀(Χ∀∃∀(−−∀!%!7%∃∃%
%  %!   ∀!! ! ∋∀ Φ  % 9∃7  ∋% !
∃&%%
) %+∀∃ 3, %4 + %∋%, ∀∃, % +! ∀!(%
!& ! %+ ∀∃, 3% ∀,4 +% 9 %%  % 
∀(%+!%!!%∃!%%∃∃%∀,
9!%∃∀( %∋∃ %!%∃∃ ,∀+!%,1% ∋%∃∋&
!%7%! ∃∋&∋% %!% ∋%! %(%7%!%
%ΧΑΧ∀(∃%%ΧΑ 9Χ∀++∋∃+%%!%%,∋∋%!
∃ %  ∃!!! ∋ ∋∋%∃ 2< −∋%%, +% % Χ ∀
0! % % !%    1!%  ∋ %   %!!( !  
%%, ∋ +! %∃ !  % ∀ !  !%∃ , 7%
,!%!! 3∋%, ∃!&4+%% Χ∀( ++!% %∋  % 
−∋∋!! )% %∃,( ! %∃ ,  !! 8&( %  %% &%! %% %
 −∋∋!! ∃∃ ; % %%  % ∋0&   % Χ∀( %
 6Γ!%∃%(Ο)%∃,%∋%%,∋!∋ %Π
%%!=!,!%∋ !∃ ∃
 ∃ %∀(+%&!&&%∃(!!∃%−∋∋!!!Θ2!%
%%!=!%!∃ % !Ε∀Ε∗Ε %ΕΑΕ∀Ε8Ε∃
 %%!%%!%%!∃%%!=∋∋%,%∗
!%%∗∃ %∗∗∀
 −∋∋%!∃/Α%+0!%%∀%%+%9%!#??Ρ−∋∋%!
< )&%%!=∋∋%,%∗!%%∗∃ %∗∗∀
 !%0(6∃∋∃−)!&−∋&%∀∃%Χ∀
%%+++&∋+Η∃≅?#≅6∃∋∗∃∗−∗∗∗)∗!&∗−∋&∗%∗∗∀∗∗
∃∗%∗Χ∗∀
%%6∃)) %++:∀+ >(!!
 ?
&∃% %% ∃ ,%%  &∀∋%∗%∗&∀∋%!!! ;! ∋, %
!+,(+%&∋%%,+%%Χ∀∃ 3∃ %4∋%%,+%%
Χ∀(%6)6!%!∃!%∀!&,∋%+%%Χ(+!%
∋!% !&∃%∃%,? % ∀!∃%!%! %!%∀!
%(∃Φ ,Φ∀%+, &%∃!%∃&
)∗+∋%,−%−&
%%, %  ∀! % !!%, % ! % ∀∃ ∃  % =%!(
!!,  ∋% +%∃! ∀∃ , % !( + 0& % ∃∋ %
∃!%% % !%& ∋%( ∀ + !∃∃ !  ∃∀%∀  ∋!∃ +0
∃,&%+
%%,! ∗!!+%∋!!∀! !%Γ)(% 8!Φ +%%
7% !%& ,&% %! ∗ %, !%! ∃%!   ,&( ∋&&
∃ ∃!%%&% ∀∃ ∃(∀ !∃ %! %+ ∃  %,  ∗ 
%!
%%, ∋!  !! +% 3!∗04  Σ−, %Σ !!( +  ∃&
∃%   %  ! % 0 % ∀∃ ∃ ∃ %! ∀%! ∃ %∃ 6))
∃%!(∃%∀∃ %!7!∀%∃∗ !&2!% + %!
!∗0 &%  !  ∃  +%  !%  %  ∃∀%∀    ∋!∃  +0!  !∃    %
&∀∃+0! %∃%∃(%+%&∃%Χ!!≅
! %!!∗0!(∃%  +&1!%!!∃ +!%&!
% , %Κ % +∃!( %+% 7%% ∋!% ,∗∃!%%   %+0  ,
∋% ! %+ +% %+0  ∃ ∃% !∋ ( ∃& %%!
!∗0%∋!Κ 9∃% (! %+0 %%∃ ∋ !!1%∃!%% ∃%
!&%∋!(+∃∃%% % % %∃%,! %+∀∃Κ
( % !%!∋ ∃%!+% %%  3!%& , %4(+, !∋,
0&# %∃ ∀∃ ,  Σ, %Σ +% % ! ∃ %∋%,∋,
7%∃% ∀& % %%! %∃( +∃&, !∃∃ %∀
, ∋∋ !%% ∃ +%∀% ( Χ(  , %∃   
! 7%! %%,∋∋%∃,%∀#%&%%
∋% &∋!  8, ( % −%  2!%  %   %%∃
%∀ #( Σ! ∋& %% % %  %%,   ∋% &∋  %
&∋∋&&&∃% ∋%  ∃% !!∃∋%&∋ ∃%7%
% %!  %! !%%%  ∋   7!!   %%&∋ ∃( ! !(  %
; 8&(9%∃%%%∋!%!∃6))(%Χ!(∋%Φ&
!%!  ∃!! %+Φ∋%  &%!
%%+++∃∋%%∀%!%??≅9;#<;?≅9;#<;Α∃
? 6)6∃!∋%+%Χ∀∃∃%!+Φ∀−−Φ%∀!!∋%+%
%Χ∀(%!%%&!!%!Χ∗∋%Τ%%+++&&!!!∗
!%%∋ΡΧ∋%!!
≅ 8∋Γ(3) %+%%!∃%ΧΑΧ46)):;
%%+++ !!& !!%∀+<<?<
# 0&∋0!%+! %+&∋!+0!&%+%%∋&&%!∃Χ,
!0&(!%%0&∋!∋%!%&∋%(,&%∋%%%&%%∃
∃&∋&∃=% %%!!%∃∗7%(∃∃,∋0&∋!∋%!+%
%!∃∃∃%∋∃&7%%∋
%%6∃)) %++:∀+ >(!!
≅
%%∃, ,&% ∋% &∋!  %!!   %%∃%∀Σ 9%&%!
=∃&∋%  +! %  %0   % ∋+0     ! %+ ∃!%%( % ∋&%  ∀
!!!  %! ∃(% 8 %,( % !! % 1!%  ( ,!& !
+0(   ,&%  ∃   !%%   ∋! ∃%!   &%∋% !!  ∋
∃&∃∃!%%&∃,%!&%∋!  %(6))∗6))
% !   %!   % ∃  %%   !%%, !!,   0&   ∋∋%&
%%, %+ %!∃ &∋ ∃ % +0!(! ! ∃% ∋%! 9!
%&∋∋&% !1!%! ∋!%,!% ∃ ,%
−%+∀%% ,%!∋%% %!∗+
∃%∃!%∃%+ ,%3∀, %4 %%!(+ ,!%
!!
 ∋!+,∃∀%∀+0!∃!%%∃
 7% %%,(∋∋%∃,% %
 !∃%7%(%!+∋∋!!∀∃∃
./−∋%0
/% %  ∋%∃!∀%!( +  !%%%% %  3, %4 !! !%& !
!!(  ! ∃ ∃ !   ! ∃  ∃∀%∀ +0!   % ∀∃ +0
∃∀%∀ +% %  ∋& ∃ ,   % %%& % !( +% ∃  ∃
%%,7%!
%Λ! !%!∃%∋!+%&∃%%∃!%% ∃∃%
9=%Σ9.9Σ!∋% =!%%!! %+∃% !&!%(+∃,
!  ∃,(+%  %∀∋∋%,   ∃∀!( + !%(Α)( & %
Χ,(%!=%Σ9.94∀ Σ∗!∃Σ%!∃%+ %!&
 !%%%=!∃∋%∃∋%=! Κ
%7%ΜΝ∃∃Μ;Ν&∃7ΜΝ∃&ΜΝ∋∃Μ1Ν∃ΜΝΜ !%Ν%ΜΝ∃Μ;<#?
 6! ∃!!!0&%%7% %Χ(8∋Γ(%
%%+++ !!& !!%∀+<<?<
%%6∃)) %++:∀+ >(!!
)%
 #
!+! (! %Ε,&%+(%∀∃7%! %∃!%%
%=%! %+∃∀!!(+!∃∃∋%!&
:∗∃!%% %∃ =% Σ9.9Σ(∀∃,%(!!!!∃
% %7%  % =% & ΣΓ9Σ( ∋&  % ,& ∃ !%&
9.9Θ! ∃ % Γ9Θ! ! %+( ! !  +% ∋∃ %!( ∃ %! ∋0&
Γ9Θ!∃∃∀%∀+0 ∃&% ,&%+∗∀%!(%!
∃!%%∋!%∃∃%!∋
! !!∋%∋! 0+ !  Σ 0&Σ( +Γ9 %0!  ∋!%  9 .9Θ!∃ ∃
∃!%%!%!%+ %∃∀%∀+0(∃∋(&(+!%%60&(!
!(!(% !%+%&!&!! %∀∋∋%,∃%!9.9
=% %! !%!( ∋∀∋%!+∋ ,∃∃ !∃+%%9.9
=%(+%%∃&%%,+Γ9=%
60&∋, !&!!!  %%!!
 9 !% 7∋(! % ! +9.9Θ! ! !!% %! ∃∃ &!
!∃, %, ∀∃(∃ %∋∋%, ∃∃!%∗ %=%
%!∀!& %&%!!% 0,% %!! 
!%∃,5
 9!∃7∋!%!+9.9Θ!!∃!% +%%%&%!%
% + %! 6 7∋(  ∃ &∀∋% +%! % !∃%
! %+ ∃!%%∃ ,%  ∋%  ∃ &&!( % % 
∃!%+%% ∀∀∃%! !!.+∀(%+∃=% ∃∋!%
!∃!%%∃∃%
,%!! + %  %∀∃ ∃! ∋&∃% =%! !∋!
∃∀%∀(%!=%∋!%∀∃,%(!%!∃!%%∃
.1%/−∋%20∋%
∀3.
 %∃&  9%   +! +%%   %%, !! %+ %
∀∃ ∃  %    %&%∃  +% %  =%!Θ  ∃  ∀∃  ,  % !%&    +0
, %! 3%&%4 !  %!+∃!% !! + ∃∀%∀ +0! ∃∃(
∃&∋7&!& %%! %∃!!%& ∋,!%%!∃!∃
∀  % !! + % !%& +0 ! % ∃∀%∀( %  !∋ ∋% 
&&&%(%!&+%,!%∃&∃!! +!
∗∋+∀!,−+##./∋
∀! ∀ 0 ./! /! ! −∀
1+∀!, −∀!! ∋
−∀(
%∀(%!% ∋%!!∃%9∃7%!% +&
!!∀∃∃%!%%9∃7 ∀∃
23∃2∀2#&1
%%6∃)) %++:∀+ >(!!


0∋0#&%1#45
∀#%5
−−∗#&51


  !∀#∃ %&∋ ()!∀%! ∗∃#
#∗
+&+, 
 !  % !%   +0 , % ! % Χ  ∃ % 8 ∋, 0
!!,  ∋!% !! %&%%! !! ∋%& +0!%& %
∃%∃!%%∃∃%.+∀(!%∀∃∃!%,∋7∃
% % ∋%∀∃ , % Χ  % 8( % !   %! !!  %
9∃7!! 
%%,7% %++!!& %∃=%344(
% ! !  ! ∃ ∀∃ ,   % ∀ ∋% !  % 9
=%∃(∃%!%∋&%∀∃∃9Θ!∃%,%
!%&+0!+∃%∋%
Α%+%!%∃&% ∋!!%%! 3%!∃!%%∃ ∋∋%4 % +
9=% ! %+ 3!  +4 ∃  ∋% ( % Θ! ∀!! !%
,% %% %∃ %%+! &,∀∃, % %(% ∋%!
%  %%%  &%!  %   %  !  !  0  %%    ,&%(  %%  
%∃∋0!%!∃%!%% %%∃%%∃!∋ +%!
%%6∃)) %++:∀+ >(!!
 
−∃%! !3∀, %4! +!
 ) %+∃∀∃,%!∋∃+%%(∃ %+0
 ∋%&+0 ∋! ∃∀%∀+0%∀∃∃+! ∃
∃ !%∃ %  ( ∀∃ , %  ! %+! ∀∃ , %
%!( ! %% %!%& ∋&∃ ∃∋!%  !∃!  +∃ %
+!Υ& ∃!%%!(0 % ∀!%!  &&&%+0(!
%%!%∃!∋7∃
 %+0(+%+% ∃∀∃,%!∋&∃(!!∃∃
−∋%∃&%%!%
< !∋∋%∃&%%!% !!∃%!%+&+0
3!+4
 7%  ∋%  ∃!∃ ∀ % !& !∋    % 
∀∃34 !∃ % ∃!%∃ !% !!%, %Σ!Σ 3 %549! !∃
∀(%! !∀!, %%! %!  !∋ ∃ %=% Σ9Σ+
%∋% %=%Σ9 .9Σ(%=!% %∃ %%!%  %∃ %%! 
!∃
 67∋(%%  ∋%!∃,%6) %+6∃%∋,∃%!3
+!!&%Χ∀(!%%!!%∃! %%%∀!!%%!!∋,∀%%4(
%%%+++&&!!!∗!%%∋ΡΧ∋%!!
%%6∃)) %++:∀+ >(!!
)&∋∀

!%,!0 %!!∋!&!∋ %∀∃!∋0∃  ,&%+(
%+%%  %∃∃∃ ∀ ∃ ∋%   %&  ∋ &
+0∃ !&% ∃%! ∋%Κ Α!!+ %∃  ∀,! 
∃!%%?∗ % !% %+ ,6)) %!80& %∀ 0& ! !&%∋
∃%% 9 0∃ +0! !!% ,+ +0& ∋∋%, %0!% ∀∃
∋∀!%!!%%,
! %%! % !% ∋%!!%%∀% +!∋%%%
∀∃%∃&∋  %!!!, ∋0&%%+∀!! ∃  %
∋% !! %%+! %∀∃∃ +%∃& %ΧΑ Χ∀+ !
∋%+%%Χ∀ =%!!∃∃3%∀,4+
%!∃%%&% ∃%%+ ∃∀∃∃% ∀ !%%
!%%∋%(%Φ∃%%∀!%,Φ%!!!∋∃%%7%!+!,%%(
 ∃+∃∃
.1%1%
Γ! % % !%∃ ∋% ! ∋ ∋∃%, 3, %4  ,%  
∀% ∋, %%!∋ ∃∀∃ ,% ∃ ! !∃ %∃ &%
=%%% %0! %∋7∃ ∃ς (  7∋∃ ∃!%%!% Φ ,
7% ∋Φ∃∗6))
%%6∃)) %++:∀+ >(!!
)4
 
!!!!+
 %Σ∃&%=%Σ9!,∃! %!+!∃ !∃∃
%!! ∗ (Χ 8∗ +! !∃∃!%%∃ ∃   %!∋
∋∃%,, %!!%∃!−∋%5
 %% !∋ ∃ ∋ 9 ! ∋∃  0∃   Σ&∃∗∃&%Σ =%
38Χ94(∃5
 %% %8Χ9 !∃∃! % ∃!%%%! 7% ∀!∃ %,
%∋!(!∋%&%%!∋%%∃(!=%%% ∃%!(,%∋∃%, %
!!
∀! !%%!∀ ∃+∃! %%! % 9∃
!% 8Χ9 + !%, ∀∃ ,% ∋,  ( Χ 8 ∃ Φ !
!%%∃ Φ%∀∃∃%%!!% %! !+!%,∀∃,%
∀!! ∃ ∋0∃ +% %! !  %%%! ! ! ∋!% !%, 6)) ∃ ,
∀ ! ! ∃( % % , % ! &, ∋%∃ %  ∀ ∃& % %
∀!   %! ! ∋& +%% , , % ∋%  % !%  % 8Χ9
=%
!!!7%!∋∃!∋,!%!%∃%%%6# 
 /!  ∋ ! 1 ! ∋   #!
/ ∋1!#7 #! ∋(44
!% !  !Φ %!% %%,Φ ∃∃ Γ%+ ∀% !%  %7%(∃
%∋%
%∋3!%+04!!∋+%∋&!(!∀!,!%%∃
)∋∋% !∀∃ 3+04 , %Χ( 8( % ∃!%
∋ %% %!!   +0  ∋!!∀ %,  , %( % %  ∀(
+%%%∋ &%&%∀&,&∃,∋0&
!%%  ! 3!%&, %4 ∋,% ∃  %+∃( +
∋% 6)) ! 7!% 6%∋( % %  3!%& , %4 ! !%
(∃%∃∃!%∀∃ ∋% ∋!+
∋0
∀!! 7∋!!%%%%%∀!!∀ %!∋!
% %∃! %%%  %∀, % ∀∃ ∃ ∃ ∃∀%∀+0!  ∋ 7!∀
%,%∃%,5
% ∋0!!∋ % % ∀∃ ∃!  .: ! %+ =%! ∃
%!!+%%∗!&%&=%5∃
%∃!%∀%%! !∋∃ %!%=%!,%! %+∃!%,
 6)6Φ%
%%6∃)) %++:∀+ >(!!
<
+%∀%, !!!∋∃!
!%&%! %!=!%%  %%&%∃!%% ,&%∃+0
,+ %&! 6))!!( ∃&% %7!∀, % !%
%%! ∃%!!  % !%!  ∋ !& % !% !!∋∋!
%+, % +% %∋ %∀∃ 7!∀ % %∀∃ +0 ∃&
%%,+%% ∋%!% +0+∃,!∃ ∋,%=%! ∃% %%
%∃!%% %!=%!
%!% %(%! ∃%∃%+∀?(∀#∃&! %%
7%∃∀ &%%,!%!
% %( %∋, %%%∀% +%+% +∀!!  %( %%
%%& !%∋%+ ∀%, ∃%∃∃ ∋∋%∃% ! %+ !
+∃%!0!!%%%7%
8 , % ! + %  7∋∃ ∃∀ % !%   ∋%
<5
∀%!%+∃&!%!∃!%%∃ ! ,% %!
∃ ∃  ∋%&+0&( +∃+∃ ∀∃( ∋!∀  +% %
∋%%%1∋%! ∋∋!%6))!%0∃!!!( %
∋,∋%,∃!∋ %+∃=%
.+∀(∃%&% % !Η∃!5!∀,0+! %%,!%∃,!!%,(%∃, !
& %(%∋+!∋,!%,

∀∃∀Φ%7% %(&&!Φ2
%%!=! %+&
Χ∃! !&%%%!=! %+&∗
&∃!
Χ∃!∋% )) %+
%%!=,∃∋%&∃∗∗∋%∗∗!∗
! %+
)!:,∃<&!∀!!%%;
%%∃∋!%%&!!!∆?∃
%,+++%
37 %∃&%)94−>!%%!∃!
%%% !∃!%∀%∃Η∗∗∗!%%
8%!%! %+∃!%%,
< !!%+, +∃,%+∀! %−−(+!+∃+!%∋∋%+%%
Χ(9Χ∃∗%%+++ ∃7%∋
%%6∃)) %++:∀+ >(!!
 
%%!+++∋%&∀∋%8∃−%6!∆Χ8−∆∆#?∆∆)∆) %+
∆∀∃
Χ∃ %∋% !%∃∃∗!∃−∋%! Χ∃%Φ
∋!8∗%%∃! ?%!!∃!!%∃,∗
%∃∗&∃!∗ ∃ %∗∗∃
)9!%∃∃3)&∃!&!!4
%%=,∃∋%!∆!∆!∆∃∆∗∗!%∃∃∗!&∗
∃∗∗!&∗!!∗%%!
##
!+ ∀# 
%%6∃)) %++:∀+ >(!!
0
!+!!∃%%%6∃)) %++
:∀+(>∋(!!∋%&,∃%
%%+++ !!&
!%!∃%∃! +!
)∋%Η(%∗∋∋ΘΘ(
∗)!0∋8#19(Φ;
 !!∀#
−,&%Ω%∗∋∋)∋%Η
!%!!∃∃−%∀−∋∋!Υ&∃∃/!
(∃∀%∀+0!(%%%(−−∗ΓΞ∗Α∀%
%%%∀∋∋!&!!,∗∃0
9!!7%(%%7!!,∋%! % %!%! %%
∃∋%%,&&(∀∃∃%%%!%&%!%+∋,
∃%%%%%%!%!!∃0!&!% %
(∃∋!%∃∃+,&%!%&%