R136 - Special Youth Schemes Recommendation, 1970 (No. 136)


The General Conference of the International Labour Organisation,

Having been convened at Geneva by the Governing Body of the International Labour Office, and having met in its Fifty-fourth Session on 3 June 1970, and

Recalling the provisions of existing international labour Conventions and Recommendations on the training and employment of young persons, in particular the Unemployment (Young Persons) Recommendation, 1935, the Vocational Training Recommendation, 1962, and the Employment Policy Convention and Recommendation, 1964, and

Considering that special youth employment schemes and training schemes designed to give young persons the necessary skills to enable them to adapt to the pace of a changing society and to take an active part in the development of their country constitute an approach to youth employment problems, supplementary to those of existing instruments, and

Noting that the problems which this approach is intended to meet have only come into prominence on a wide scale in recent years, and

Considering that it is important to adopt an instrument setting out the objectives, methods and safeguards of such special schemes, in such manner that they would be fully consistent with earlier international labour standards relevant to conditions of service therein, particularly those of the Forced Labour Convention, 1930, and the Abolition of Forced Labour Convention, 1957, and

Having decided upon the adoption of certain proposals with regard to special youth employment and training schemes for development purposes, which is the sixth item on the agenda of the session, and

Having determined that these proposals shall take the form of a Recommendation,

adopts this twenty-third day of June of the year one thousand nine hundred and seventy, the following Recommendation, which may be cited as the Special Youth Schemes Recommendation, 1970.

I. Nature of Special Schemes
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    • (1) This Recommendation applies to special schemes designed to enable young persons to take part in activities directed to the economic and social development of their country and to acquire education, skills and experience facilitating their subsequent economic activity on a lasting basis and promoting their participation in society.
    • (2) These schemes are hereinafter referred to as special schemes.
  2. 2. The following may be regarded as special schemes for the purpose of this Recommendation
    • (a) schemes which meet needs for youth employment and training not yet met by existing national educational or vocational training programmes or by normal opportunities on the employment market;
    • (b) schemes which enable young persons, especially unemployed young persons, who have educational or technical qualifications which are needed by the community for development, particularly in the economic, social, educational or health fields, to use their qualifications in the service of the community.
II. General Principles
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    • (1) Special schemes should be organised within the framework of national development plans where these exist and should, in particular, be fully integrated with human resources plans and programmes directed towards the achievement of full and productive employment as well as with regular programmes for the education and training of young people.
    • (2) Special schemes should have an interim character to meet current and pressing economic and social needs. They should not duplicate or prejudice other measures of economic policy or the development of regular educational or vocational training programmes nor be regarded as an alternative to these measures and these regular programmes.
    • (3) Special schemes should not be operated in a manner likely to lower labour standards nor should the services of participants therein be used for the advantage of private persons or undertakings.
    • (4) Special schemes should provide participants, where appropriate, with at least a minimum level of education.
  2. 4. The essential elements of every special scheme should include the safeguarding of human dignity and the development of the personality and of a sense of individual and social responsibility.
  3. 5. Special schemes should be administered without discrimination on the basis of race, colour, sex, religion, political opinion, national extraction or social origin; they should be used for the active promotion of equality of opportunity and treatment.
  4. 6. The purposes and objectives of each special scheme and the categories of participants should be clearly defined by the competent authority and should be subject to periodic review in the light of experience.
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    • (1) Participation in special schemes should be voluntary; exceptions may be permitted only by legislative action and where there is full compliance with the terms of existing international labour Conventions on forced labour and employment policy.
    • (2) Schemes in respect of which exceptions may be so permitted may include--
      • (a) schemes of education and training involving obligatory enrolment of unemployed young people within a definite period after the age limit of regular school attendance;
      • (b) schemes for young people who have previously accepted an obligation to serve for a definite period as a condition of being enabled to acquire education or technical qualifications of special value to the community for development.
    • (3) Where exceptions are so permitted, participants should, to the greatest possible extent, be given a...

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