3. Port infrastructure, plant and equipment
Port infrastructure, plant and equipment
3.1. General provisions
3.1.1. Separation of people and vehicles
With the mechanization of cargo-handling operations,
the design, layout and maintenance of port infrastructure and
plant and equipment have become increasingly important.
As vehicles and mobile plant are now one of the main elem-
ents in fatal and serious accidents in ports, people should be
separated from vehicles whenever this is practicable.
1. The surface of port areas should be:
— of adequate strength to support the heaviest loads that
will be imposed on them;
— level, or with only a slight slope;
— free from holes, cracks, depressions, unnecessary kerbs
or other raised objects;
— skid resistant.
2. The possible need for future repair should be con-
sidered when selecting surface materials.
3. As asphalt can be damaged by oil, fuel and other sol-
vents, spillages should be cleaned up immediately to pre-
vent or minimize damage.
4. Plain metal surfaces, such as those on brows or
ramps, can become slippery, particularly when wet. The use
of chequer plate or other plates with raised patterns or non-
slip coatings should be considered.
Port infrastructure, plant and equipment
5. Wooden structures should be built of wood that is
suitable for use at the location in question. Additional pro-
tection may be provided by the use of suitable preservatives.
Wood should not be covered with asphalt or other materials
that will hide its condition and may lead to accelerated hid-
den rot or other deterioration.
6. Plastic surface coverings can include a variety of non-
7. All surfaces other than ramps, etc., should be as level
as reasonably practicable while providing adequate drain-
age. Any slope on quays or other operational areas should
not exceed 1 per cent and should not slope towards the edge
of a quay. Drainage systems should include appropriate
interceptors to prevent maritime pollution.
8. Ramps or slopes used by lift trucks or other cargo-
handling vehicles should not have a gradient steeper than 1
in 10 unless the vehicles have been designed to operate
safely on such a gradient.
1. Adequate lighting of all working port areas should
be provided during the hours of darkness and at times of re-
2. Different levels of lighting may be appropriate in dif-
3. On access routes for people, plant and vehicles, and
in lorry parks and similar areas, the minimum level of illumi-
nation should not be less than 10 lux.
Safety and health in ports
4. In operational areas where people and vehicles or
plant work together, the minimum level of illumination
should not be less than 50 lux.
5. Light meters should be able to read to an accuracy of
1 lux. Meters should have a wide angle of acceptance in
order to minimize errors due to directionality or low sensi-
tivity to differing types of light sources, or be provided with
the relevant correction factors.
6. Light measurements should normally be taken in the
horizontal plane 1 m above the ground or other working sur-
face. Measurements at a lower level may be necessary
where there are obstructions that might conceal a tripping
hazard. The meter should not be oriented towards a light
7. Records should be kept of all lighting measurements.
These should include the date, time, weather conditions,
location and details of the lighting and light meter.
8. Higher levels of lighting may be required at particu-
larly dangerous places, such as shore gangways, accommo-
dation ladders, steps and other breaks in quays or where de-
tailed work is necessary. Where a higher level of lighting is
required only occasionally, it may be provided by mobile or
9. Lighting should be as uniform as practicable. Sharp
differences in lighting levels should be avoided.
10. The choice and positioning of light sources and
each installation should be planned individually.
11. Lamps emitting monochromatic light, such as
sodium-vapour lamps, give a good light in foggy weather but
distort colours and may lead to confusion. They should
be confined to non-operational areas. In operational areas,