JURIDICA INTERNATIONAL 25/2017
Doctoral student, University of Tartu
Adviser to the Public Order and Criminal Policy Department
Ministry of the Interior
A Legal Cultural Model
as a Theoretical Basis
of Reintegration Strategies
for ISIS Ex-militants
The rising threat of violent extremism in recent years has become widely discussed by mass media. Topics
associated with how to combat violent extremism or how to counter radicalisation appear in the media so
frequently that they are becoming part of public discourse.
When we talk about violent extremism, we ﬁ rstly have to talk about Daesh*1, also known as ISIS*2 or
ISIL*3. This organisation is known for being a brutal, deadly, and extremely vitality-rich terrorist move-
ment that has more territorial, material, and human resources than any other the world has ever seen.*4 It
has also been called the greatest threat to world peace, not to mention that its fanaticism and disciplined
organisation are now being compared to those of the Nazi regime.*5 Making matters worse is that more than
80 countries have had to face the fact of their citizens having joined ISIS*6 and now being considered ISIS
It is also known that approximately 60 per cent of the people who have joined ISIS to act as militants
are going to be killed during the battles or via suicide; 20 per cent of the people who have joined ISIS will
ﬂ ee to places other than their home country, such as Yemen or the Philippines, never to return home; and
about 20 per cent of the militants will return home of their own volition or be administratively sent back to
their home countries*8. Once they are back in their home countries, there is good reason to believe that the
An Arabic acronym used as a pejorative for ISIS.
Islamic State of Iraq and Syria.
Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant.
A. Lekas. #ISIS: The largest threat to world peace trending now. – Emory International Law Review () / ,
Ibid., p. .
In September , CIA reports estimated that ISIS had recruited , people to ﬁ ght in Iraq and Syria, from distinct
countries. Information is available at http://edition.cnn.com////world/meast/isis-syria-iraq/ (most recently
accessed on ..).
Also known as ISIS ﬁ ghters, combatants, or warriors.
Information from a conﬁ dential source provided by employer the Ministry of the Interior of the Republic of Estonia.