72 E. Aminzadeh & N. Khodaparast
Security connotes the state of being free from danger or threat of a state or an
organization against criminal activity such as terrorism, theft, espionage or military
attack and/or procedures followed or measures taken to ensure such a state. In this
sense, security is a familiar concept in all human societies from a small primitive tribe
to the great empires. For this reason, policy-makers of each government constitute a
“secure military situation”
Up until the late 1990s, the primary element of security was regarded as military
However, threats to the security are getting more exhaustive and complex.
instance, environmental degradation is considered as one of the most critical factors in
annihilating human security. It was unknown to all just a few decades ago. Moreover,
from a political, military, economic, social and environmental perspective.
security can be classified into two dimensions which are deeply interlaced with
Environmental security and other issues.
In particular, today, the energy security, especially regarding oil and gas is a
highly central security issue in contemporary societies.
Energy, and in particular oil
1 B. BUZAN, PEOPLE, STATES AND FEAR 23 (Mojtaba Attarzadeh ed., 2018). <available only in Iranian>
3 B. BUZAN ET AL, A NEW FRAMEWORK FOR SECURITY ANALYSIS 78 (Tehran Strategic Studies Institute ed., 2015). <available
only in Iranian>
4 M. DRENT ET AL, THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EXTERNAL AND INTERNAL SECURITY 7 (D. Zandee et al. eds., 2014), available
internal%20security.pdf. See also P. Katoch, Internal Security: Need for Comprehensive Matrix, SCHOLAR WARRIOR
18 (2016), available at https://www.claws.in/images/journals_doc/960908944_PrakashKatoch.pdf; M. Stone,
Security According to Buzan: A Comprehensive Security Analysis, 1 USA Security Discussion Papers 2-4 (2009),
available at http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/citations;jsessionid=5D2011862012306B62F319D2D6F3CD23?doi=
10.1.1.615.5880 (all last visited on May 20, 2019).
5 D. Baldwin, The concept of security, 23 REV. INT’L STUD. 23 (1997).
6 E. Duruigbo, Oil, Turmoil, and A Texas Export for Energy Security, 37 T. MARSHALL L. REV. 231 (2011-12).