Legal Approach to Energy Security of Iran: With Special References to Crude Oil and Gas

Author:Elham Aminzadeh - Nasser Khodaparast
Position:Associate Professor in Public International Law at the University of Tehran. LL.B. / LL.M. (Univ. of Shahid Beheshti, Iran), Ph.D. (Glasgow). Former Legal Deputy of President Rouhani. Head of Energy Law Research Institute of University of Tehran, Former Research Deputy of Faculty of Law and Political Sciences of University of Tehran. The author...
Pages:71-89
SUMMARY

Despite the current developments in creation of state security, the question of affording energy security is of paramount importance worldwide. Hence, all countries try to adopt myriads of laws and regulations aimed at energy security. Energy security relates to the degree of economic welfare attached to the rise or fall in either the price or availability of energy. The Islamic Republic of Iran, ... (see full summary)

 
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Elham Aminzadeh
& Nasser Khodaparast
∗∗
Despite the current developments in creation of state security, the question of affording
energy security is of paramount importance worldwide. Hence, all countries try to
adopt myriads of laws and regulations aimed at energy security. Energy security
relates to the degree of economic welfare attached to the rise or fall in either the price
or availability of energy. The Islamic Republic of Iran, on the one hand is located
in a strategic center of producing and exporting energy (oil and gas) known as
ellipse of energy. On the other hand, it is situated in the transit way of energy to
large consuming markets such as South and East of Asia and Europe. Thus, Iran is
currently considered as an effective player in providing energy security in the world. In
this article, the authors seek to analyze the strategic policies and priorities stipulated in
the oil and gas-related regulations of Iran in terms of energy security.
Keywords
Energy Security, Oil, Gas, Iran, Iranian Laws and Regulations
Legal Approach to
Energy Security of Iran:
With Special References
to Crude Oil and Gas
Associate Professor in Public International Law at the University of Tehran. LL.B./ LL.M. (Univ. of Shahid Beheshti,
Iran), Ph.D. (Glasgow). Former Legal Deputy of President Rouhani. Head of Energy Law Research Institute of University
of Tehran, Former Research Deputy of Faculty of Law and Political Sciences of University of Tehran. The author may be
contacted at: eaminzadeh@ut.ac.ir / Address: Faculty of Law and Political Sciences, University of Tehran, 16 Azar Ave.,
Enghelab Sq, Tehran, I.R. Iran.
∗∗ Ph.D. candidate in Oil and Gas Law at Tehran University); Lecturer of International Law & Oil and Gas Law at Teheran
University; Legal Advisor of NIOC; Attorney-at-Law (Iran Bar). LL.B. (Qom Univ.), LL.M. (Tehran). The author
would like to thank Dr. Rabiee for reading drafts of this paper and giving his constructive feedbacks. The author may be
contacted at: N.Khodaparast@nioc.ir / Address: 9th Floor, Ministry of Petroleum Building, Taleghani Ave., Tehran, Iran.
J. EAST ASIA & INTL L. Vol. 12/No.1 (2019); 71-90
Publication type : Research Article
Section : Notes & Comments
DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.14330/jeail.2019.12.1.04
72 E. Aminzadeh & N. Khodaparast
1. Introduction
Security connotes the state of being free from danger or threat of a state or an
organization against criminal activity such as terrorism, theft, espionage or military
attack and/or procedures followed or measures taken to ensure such a state. In this
sense, security is a familiar concept in all human societies from a small primitive tribe
to the great empires. For this reason, policy-makers of each government constitute a
secure military situation   
security agenda.
1
Up until the late 1990s, the primary element of security was regarded as military
defense.
2
However, threats to the security are getting more exhaustive and complex.
      
instance, environmental degradation is considered as one of the most critical factors in
annihilating human security. It was unknown to all just a few decades ago. Moreover,
  
from a political, military, economic, social and environmental perspective.
3
In general,
security can be classified into two dimensions which are deeply interlaced with
      

other matters.
4
  
      
Environmental security and other issues.
In particular, today, the energy security, especially regarding oil and gas is a
highly central security issue in contemporary societies.
6
Energy, and in particular oil
       
1 B. BUZAN, PEOPLE, STATES AND FEAR 23 (Mojtaba Attarzadeh ed., 2018). <available only in Iranian>
2 Id.
3 B. BUZAN ET AL, A NEW FRAMEWORK FOR SECURITY ANALYSIS 78 (Tehran Strategic Studies Institute ed., 2015). <available
only in Iranian>
4 M. DRENT ET AL, THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EXTERNAL AND INTERNAL SECURITY 7 (D. Zandee et al. eds., 2014), available
at https://www.clingendael.org/sites/default/files/pdfs/The%20relationship%20between%20external%20and%20
internal%20security.pdf. See also P. Katoch, Internal Security: Need for Comprehensive Matrix, SCHOLAR WARRIOR
18 (2016), available at https://www.claws.in/images/journals_doc/960908944_PrakashKatoch.pdf; M. Stone,
Security According to Buzan: A Comprehensive Security Analysis, 1 USA Security Discussion Papers 2-4 (2009),
available at http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/citations;jsessionid=5D2011862012306B62F319D2D6F3CD23?doi=
10.1.1.615.5880 (all last visited on May 20, 2019).
5 D. Baldwin, The concept of security, 23 REV. INTL STUD. 23 (1997).
6 E. Duruigbo, Oil, Turmoil, and A Texas Export for Energy Security, 37 T. MARSHALL L. REV. 231 (2011-12).

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