Report No. 43 (2015) IACHR. Case No. 12.632 (Argentina)

CourtInter-American Comission of Human Rights
Alleged VictimAdriana Beatriz Gallo, Ana María Careaga y Silvia Maluf de Christin
Report Number43
Case Number12.632
Case TypeMerits
Respondent StateArgentina
REPORT No. 43/15
CASE 12.632
REPORT ON THE MERITS (PUBLICATION)
ADRIANA BEATRIZ GALLO, ANA MARÍA CARIAGA AND SILVIA
MALUF DE CHRISTIN
ARGENTINA
Approved by the Commission at its session No. 2044 held on July 28, 2015
155 Regular Period of Session.
OEA/Ser.L/V/II.155
Doc. 23
28 July 2015
Original: English
Cite as: IACHR, Report No. 43/15, Case 12.632. Mer its (Publication). Adriana Beatriz Gallo, Ana
María Cariaga and Silvia Maluf de Christin. Argentina. July 28, 2015.
www.cidh.org
REPORT No. 43/15
CASE 12.632
MERITS (PUBLICATION)
ADRIANA BERATRIZ GALLO, ANA MARÍA CAREAGA, AND SILVIA MALUF DE CHRISTIN
ARGENTINA
JULY 28, 2015
TABLE OF CONTENTS
I. SUMMARY ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 3
II. PROCESSING BY THE IACHR .................................................................................................................................................... 4
III. POSITIONS OF THE PARTIES ................................................................................................................................................... 4
A. The petitioners .............................................................................................................................................................. 4
B. The State .......................................................................................................................................................................... 8
IV. PROVEN FACTS ............................................................................................................................................................................. 10
A. Background on the Province of San Luis 1995-2005 ................................................................................. 10
1. Tension between the Executive Branch and the Provincial Judiciary.
Resignation of four members of the Superior Court. ............................................................... 10
2. Resolution in the form of a complaint by the Bar Association of Villa Mercedes ........ 11
3. Communiqués issued by various organizations ......................................................................... 12
4. Consideration of a possible Federal intervention of the Province of San Luis ............. 13
C. Processes of removal of judges Gallo, Careaga, and Maluf ..................................................... 22
1. Process of removal of Judge Gallo ..................................................................................................... 22
2. Process on the removal of Judge Careaga ...................................................................................... 29
3. Process of removal of Judge Maluf .................................................................................................... 35
IV. LAW ANALYSIS ............................................................................................................................................................................. 40
A. Preliminary matters .................................................................................................................................................. 40
1. The principle of judicial independence and its effects on the analysis of the case ..... 40
2. Mechanisms for the removal of judges and the impeachment process ........................... 44
B. Right to a fair trial and to judicial protection (Articles 8 and 25 of the American
Convention), in connection with the obligation to respect rights and to adopt domestic
provisions (Articles 1.1 and 2 of the American Convention) ................................................................. 45
(i) Violation of the principle of coherenc e and of prior, detailed communication
of the charges ............................................................................................................................................. 50
(ii) Violation of the right to have the elements necessary to prepa re a defense ................. 50
(iii) Reasonable time ........................................................................................................................................ 51
(iv) Violation of the right to appeal judgments and of the right to judicial protection ..... 52
C. Principle of legality (Article 9 of the American Convention), in connection with
the obligation of respecting rights (Article 1.1 of the American Convention) ................................ 54
D. Right of free expression of Judges Adriana Gallo, Ana María Careaga, and Silvia Maluf, in
connection with the principle of legality, enshrined in Articles 13 and 9 of the American
Convention .................................................................................................................................................................... 57
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1. General considerations on the scope of freedom of expression and the restriction of
that right among officers of the judiciary ...................................................................................... 60
V. MEASURES TAKEN SINCE REPORT No. 72/12 .............................................................................................................. 74
VI. MEASURES TAKEN SINCE REPORT No. 11/14 .............................................................................................................. 76
VII. ANALYSIS OF COMPLIANCE WITH THE RECOMMENDATIONS ............................................................................. 76
VIII. CONCLUSIONS AND FINAL RECOMMENDATIONS ....................................................................................................... 77
IX. PUBLICATION ................................................................................................................................................................................ 78
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