SOPHIA C: Inclusion is a truly multidimensional topic.
Understanding inclusion require s thinking that crosses
the traditional b oundary between dierent ﬁel ds.
This kind of thinking is no t uncommon in your research,
Sole: you have written ex tensively at the intersec tion of
ﬁnance and development , two views that have developed
mostly indepen dently. What interests you in making the
connection between these two?
SOLE M: When I sta rted my professional career at th e
World Bank, I really was not thi nking about ﬁnancial
inclusion. However, I was in a group where many
colleagues were working on ﬁnancial development.
They studied how t he size of the ﬁnancial sector mat tered
for growth. With colleagues Asli Demirgüç-Kunt and
Thorsten Bec k, we started wondering wh ether what
Sole Martinez Peria is Assistant
Director of the IMF Research
Department. A former Research
Manager at the World Bank, Sole
played an active role in collecting
cross-country data and kick-starting
the Bank’s research on ﬁnancial
inclusion. In this interview, she talks
with Sophia Chen about inclusion—
what it means for economic research
and for the economics profession.
IMF RESEARCH perspectives | IMF.org/researchbulletin 01