Author:International Labour Organization
In this code of practice, the following terms have the meanings hereby assigned to
Active monitoring: The ongoing activities which check that hazard identification, risk
assessment and the appropriate preventive and protective measures, as well as the
arrangements to implement the occupational safety and health (OSH) management system,
conform to defined criteria.
Asbestos: The fibrous form of mineral silicates belonging to rock-forming minerals of
the serpentine group, i.e. chrysotile (white asbestos), and of the amphibole group,
i.e. actinolite, amosite (brown asbestos), anthophylite, crocidolite (blue asbestos),
tremolite, or any mixture containing one or more of these.
Asbestos dust: Airborne particles of asbestos or settled particles of asbestos that are
liable to become airborne in the working environment.
Asphyxiant: A substance that causes injury by decreasing the amount of oxygen
available to the body. Asphyxiants may act by displacing air from an enclosed space, or by
interfering with the body’s ability to absorb and transport oxygen.
Audit: A systematic, independent and documented process for obtaining evidence and
evaluating it objectively to determine the extent to which defined criteria are fulfilled.
Audits should be conducted by competent persons internal or external to the facility who
are independent of the activity being audited.
Competent authority: A minister, government department or other public authority
with the power to issue regulations, orders or other instructions having the force of law.
Under national laws or regulations, competent authorities may be appointed with
responsibilities for specific activities, such as for the implementation of national policy and
procedures for the protection of iron and steel workers.
Competent person: A person with suitable training, and sufficient knowledge,
experience and skill, for the performance of the specific work.
Contractor: A person or an enterprise providing services to an employer at the facility
in accordance with national laws and regulations, or with agreed specifications, terms and
conditions. For the purpose of this code of practice, contractors include principal
contractors, subcontractors and labour supply agents.
Dangerous occurrence: Readily identifiable event, as defined under national laws and
regulations, with potential to cause injury or disease to people at work or the general
public, for example a “near miss” or a “near hit”.
Employer: Any physical or legal person that employs one or more workers.
Engineering controls: Use of technical measures such as enclosure, ventilation and
workplace design to minimize exposure.
Engulfment: The condition of being swallowed up or overwhelmed by loose material,
for example in the cave-in of an unshored trench. Engulfment usually causes injury by
asphyxiation or crushing.

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