Author:International Labour Organization
Meetings-MESHA-Final Code-2010-10-0355-1-En.doc/v2 177
In this code of practice, the following terms have the meanings hereby assigned to
Active monitoring: The ongoing activities which check that hazard identification, risk
assessment and the appropriate preventive and protective measures, as well as the
arrangements to implement the occupational safety and health (OSH) management system,
conform to defined criteria.
Agricultural enterprise: For the purposes of this code of practice, a farm or
agricultural undertaking in which an employer employs one or more workers.
Asphyxiant: A substance that causes injury by decreasing the amount of oxygen
available to the body. Asphyxiants may act by displacing air from an enclosed space, or by
interfering with the body’s ability to absorb and transport oxygen.
Audit: A systematic, independent and documented process for obtaining evidence and
evaluating it objectively to determine the extent to which defined criteria are fulfilled.
Audits should be conducted by competent persons internal or external to the workplace
who are independent of the activity being audited.
Bullying: Repeated unreasonable actions intended to intimidate, degrade, offend or
humiliate, often involving an abuse of power.
Competent a uthority: A minister, government department or other public authority
with the power to issue regulations, orders or other instructions having the force of law.
Under national laws or regulations, competent authorities may be appointed with
responsibilities for specific activities, such as for the implementation of national policy and
procedures for the protection of agricultural workers.
Competent person: A person with suitable training, and sufficient knowledge,
experience and skill, for the performance of the specific work.
Contractor : A person or an enterprise providing services to an employer at the
workplace in accordance with national laws and regulations, or with agreed specifications,
terms and conditions. For the purpose of this code of practice, contractors include principal
contractors, subcontractors and labour supply agents.
Dangerous occur rence: Readily identifiable event, as defined under national laws and
regulations, with potential to cause injury or disease to people at work or the general
Employer: Any physical or legal person that employs one or more workers.
Engineering controls: Use of mechanical or technical measures such as enclosure,
ventilation and workplace design to minimize exposure.
Engulfment: The condition of being swallowed up or overwhelmed by loose material,
for example in the cave-in of an unshored trench or the shifting of grain in a silo.
Engulfment usually causes injury by asphyxiation or crushing.
Exposure limit: An exposure level specified or recommended by a competent
authority to limit injury to health. The terms adopted by the competent authority vary from
country to country and include: ―administrative control levels‖; ―maximum allowable

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