Framework Of Social Security System In Turkey

AutorÖzgür Oguz
Cargo del AutorProfessor of Anadolu University (Universidad de Anatolia), Faculty of Law, Eskisehir, Turquía
Framework Of Socıal Securıty System In Turkey
Özgür OöUZ369
1. The analytical framework
The Turkish welfare regime is generally included in the family of Southern European
welfare states because of the fragmented and hierarchical nature of its social policy. Two
major socio-economic currents in the Turkish political sphere shaped the period following
the coup of 1980, the liberilization of the economy and the rise of political Islam370.
This study focuses on the extent and the way of “Europeanization” in the social security
reform process in Turkey adopting an actor based “usages of Europe” theoretical
In April 2008, the Turkish parliament passed a social security bill which will lead to
signifi cant changes within the Turkish health and pension system. This section shows that
the recentreform stands in line with a number of legal changes that have been implemented
since the 1990s. While Turkish governments tried to reduce the expenses for the social
security institutions especially in the realm of pensions, a trend towards a more
universalistic health care becomes visible. Besides, the state tries to strengthen the family’s
role in welfare provision and supports new actors, such as private insurance companies.
The social security system in Turkey went through a major transformation in 2007,
resulting in a more efficient and fast functioning system, based on centralizing the control
of different social security funds in a single institution. Within the scope of the program:
The three insurance funds, namely SSK, Emekli Sandigi and Bag-Kur, were merged under
a sole body called the Social Security Institution (SSI) in 2007. The three insurance funds
together cover around 81% of the population as of 2008. The system started to be fully
operational at the beginning of 2008.
2.Social Security System in Turkey
From the first of October 2008 on, the three institutions responsible for health and
pension insurance will be joined under the Social Security Institution (Sosyal Güvenlik
Kurumu) which has already functioned as an umbrella institution since 2006. While state
employees are excluded from the new regulations, workers in the private sector and self-
employed will work longer for less pension benefits. From the year 2036 onwards, the
retirement age will rise incrementally to from 60 (men) and 58 (women) to 65 years. The
minimum days of contribution to the pension schemes will increase from 7,000 to 7,200
days. After a transition period of ten years, pension benefit will be calculated by
multiplying two percent instead of today’s three percent of a worker’s final salary by the
years he worked. For those workers entering the labor market after April 2008 for the first
time, the rate is two percent from the beginning.
The social security system covering pensions and health insurance consisted of three
369 Professor of Anadolu University (Universidad de Anatolia), Faculty of Law, Eskiúehir, Turquía.
370 øpek GÖÇMEN, “Religion, politics and social assistance in Turkey: The rise of religiously
motivated associations” Journal european Social Policy, 2014, p. 24:92.
371 A. Can TUNCAY and Ömer EKMEKÇI, Sosyal Güvenlik Hukuku Dersleri, østanbul, 2005, p. 1.

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