The terms 'intelligence' and 'policing' put together often strike thoughts pertaining to some fashion of covert surveillance system that is used to gather information in an undisclosed manner. However, the true meaning of the term intelligence policing, or intelligence led policing (a more meaningful way to put it) is far from this assumption.
As technology continues to accelerate at a rapid pace in the 21 century, it is imperative that law enforcement agencies keep up with this rapid change. Law enforcement agencies, particularly, police forces are always coming up new methods to fight crime in a more effective manner. As a part of this never-ending search, police forces have come up with a method to help prevent crime by ensuring that it never takes place in the first place.
In the early 1990s, UK police forces (i.e., Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Constabulary) began advocating for the increased usage of surveillance and intelligence to target serial criminals, who were reoffending constantly. It was not until the terror attacks on 11 September 2001 that Intelligence Led Policing (ILP) started becoming heavily incorporated into policing styles across the globe. Prior to this incident, most government agencies would not often divulge information to each other.
Noting that the resources available to criminal individuals have grown exponentially with the advent of technology, police forces moved towards a system of prevention over cure, ensuring that crimes had been taken care of prior to happening.
The first-ever instance of intelligence being police in action was the incorporation of the practice into the functioning of the Kent County Constabulary in England in 1997. In the wake of budget cuts and upon noticing that it was only a small percentage of individuals committing the vast majority of property-related crimes, the constabulary employed a larger number of units to focus solely on analyzing property crimes. Not surprisingly, the Kent Constabulary was able to see a 24% drop in property-related crimes. This was the first evidence of ILP in action, and owing to its great success, this model of policing crimes was soon adopted in Europe and the United States of America (USA).
To clarify, ILP is not the same as predictive policing, although they are not mutually exclusive from one another. Predictive policing employs computers to scan and examine large amounts of data pertaining to certain types of crimes in certain geographical regions, in...