The country case studies are the product of a collaborative effort on the part of customs experts and consultants who either participated in the reform processes in the countries reviewed or have accumulated significant technical knowledge about customs reform and modernization processes in a worldwide context during the course of their professional experience. The studies were prepared using a methodology developed by Luc De Wulf and Michael Lane. The editors have revised and updated the studies submitted by the authors so as to obtain greater uniformity.

The editors reviewed the country case studies on an individual basis, as did a number of peer reviewers, including Amparo Ballivián (World Bank), Michael Engelschalk (World Bank), Carlos Ferreira (World Bank), Guillermo Gutierrez (National Customs of Bolivia), Allan Katiga (Uganda Revenue Authority), David Kloeden (International Monetary Fund), and Michael Lane (formerly with the U.S. Customs Service). The editors also wish to thank the staff members of the Ghana Community Network, who were most helpful to the author in undertaking the Ghana study, especially Emmanuel Darko and Nigel Gregory. Comments were received from the respective World Bank country teams. The contribution of Peter M. Kalil, chief of the Integration Trade and Hemispheric Issues Division,

Inter-American Development Bank, is also gratefully acknowledged, particularly in supporting the preparation...

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