This project would not have been possible without the patience, understanding, and generous support and contributions provided by many colleagues and customs experts from national customs organizations, international organizations, and in the private consultancy business.

Larry Hinkle, Lead Specialist in the Bank's Africa Region, encouraged the initiation of this project, and the Africa Region provided financial support at its initiation. Ataman Aksoy and Yvonne Tsikata were instrumental in getting this project launched.

Uri Dadush, Director of the Trade Department, gave this project priority status throughout its development and provided his wisdom and guidance at the most critical stages. John Panzer, our Manager in the Trade Department, provided the team with his unfailingly enthusiastic support and leadership and ensured the timely completion of the project.

The staff of the World Customs Organization, and especially its Deputy Secretary General, Mr. Kunio Mikuriya, who also acted as Peer Reviewer, generously shared their operational experience and their time with the editors and contributed to several chapters. The staff of the Inter-American Development Bank and of the International Monetary Fund also supported the project and provided advice and comments at various times during the preparation of the book. Our special appreciation goes to François Corfmat from the IMF who was a Peer Reviewer and who made significant contributions to several chapters. All generously shared their insights and expertise during the process of defining the scope of the project and provided guidance in its preparation.

The authors of the thirteen chapters contributed their expertise and showed great patience with the many demands placed on them by the editors. Our dear late colleague Jit Gill contributed with his advice and comments with characteristic professionalism and personal warmth. Special thanks are also due to the following colleagues and friends who contributed to making this book possible: Amparo Ballivián (WB), Ed Campos (WB), Patricio Castro (IMF), Lee...

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