Abbreviations and Acronyms

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AIC
Administration for Industry and Commerce

ASEAN
Association of South East Asian Nations

CACM
Central American Common Market

CD
compact disc

CES
constant-elasticity-of-substitution

CIF
cost, insurance, and freight

DALYs
disability-adjusted life years

DEFEND
Developing Economies' Fund for Essential New Drugs

EBRD
European Bank for Reconstruction and Development

EC
European Community

ECJ
European Court of Justice

EFTA
European Free Trade Association

EMRs
exclusive marketing rights

EU
European Union

FDI
foreign direct investment

GATT
General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs

GDP
gross domestic product

GLS
generalized least squares

GNP
gross national product

IIPA
International Intellectual Property Alliance

IMF
International Monetary Fund

IPRs
intellectual property rights

LAFTA
Latin American Free Trade Association

LAIA
Latin American Integration Association

LM
Lagrange multiplier

MERCOSUR
Mercado Común del Sur (Southern Cone Common Market)

MLE
maximum likelihood estimation

MNE
multinational enterprise

NAFTA
North American Free Trade Agreement

NTB
nontariff barrier

OECD
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development

OLI
ownership-location-internalization

OLS
ordinary least squares

PC
personal computer

R&D
research and development

SIC
Standard Industrial Classification

SITC
Standard International Trade Classification

SOE
state-owned enterprise

TB
tuberculosis

TFP
total factor productivity

TI
Transparency International

TNC
transnational corporation

TRAINS
Trade Analysis and Information System

TRI
Trade Restrictiveness Index

TRIPS
Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights

UNAIDS
United Nations Programme on AIDS

UNCTAD
United Nations Conference on Trade and Development

VCD
video compact disc

WHO
World Health Organization

WIPO
World Intellectual Property Organization

WTO
World Trade Organization

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