Paix et Sécurité Internationales

Universidad de Cádiz
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Documents les plus récents

  • Refugee Crisis and Migrations at the Gates of Europe: Deterritoriality, Extraterritoriality and Externalization of Border Controls

    The refugee crisis has shaped a new perception of the migration reality in Europe. The ramifications of its impact on European integration are visible and enduring. The EU’s response has included a certain strategic perspective, albeit weighed down by an excess of eurocentrism and a security perception that does not take third countries’ interests into balanced account. The major economic eff ort being made supports a far-reaching strategy, only now beginning to be outlined, to promote economic development in the countries of origin and transit of migrants. Additionally, issues such as the monitoring of respect for migrants’ human rights have not yet been suitably globally defined in this strategy. Although the behaviour and response capacity of the EU and its Member States can be assessed in diff erent ways, the truth is that the migration debate has decisively swayed a block of countries that are openly reluctant to engage in intra-European solidarity and accept the new realities and responsibilities entailed by the refugees already present and yet to come to Europe. This position is very negative in the medium and long term, since, as noted, the crisis has also underscored the permanence of migration trends and flows and the consolidation of the routes or gates of entry to Europe. This contribution considers the vulnerability of the European borders designed and in operation in the Schengen Area. The internal borders were the most aff ected at the start of the migration crisis and are likely to be marked by current regulatory changes, which tend to allow exceptionality as a relatively common occurrence in the European ‘federal’ area of free movement. Nevertheless, the resilience of this system of the absence of internal border controls in the ‘federal’ area of free movement is undeniable. KEYWORDS: European Union, immigration, refugees, asylum, European values, border controls, immigration controls, migration policy, borders, internal borders, external borders, Frontex, maritime immigration, externalization, extraterritoriality, deterritoriality, human rights

  • The Instruments of Pre-Border Control in the EU: A New Source of Vulnerability for Asylum Seekers?

    Lecturer (Profesora Doctora Encargada) in International Law and International Organizations, University of Deusto. The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Commission’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007- 2013) under the Grant Agreement FRAME (project n° 320000). This article draws from The protection of vulnerable individuals in the context of EU policies on border checks, asylum and immigration, FRAME Deliverable No. 11.3 available at .

  • Immigration In Spain: Migratory Routes, Cooperation With Third Countries And Human Rights In Return Procedures

    Following a brief overview of immigration in Spain, the present paper first analyses the main routes of irregular immigration into Spain, giving recent data on the number of arrivals by sea and land to the Iberian Peninsula, Balearic Islands, Canary Islands and Spanish territories in North Africa. The sea has traditionally been the main route of entry to Spanish territory for immigrants primarily from Sub-Saharan Africa. However, the years 2013 to 2015 proved an exception to this rule, with immigration by land outstripping that by sea due to an increase in the arrival of Syrian immigrants to the cities of Ceuta and above all Melilla. Next, a description is given of the political and operational mechanisms established by the Spanish authorities to control Spain’s maritime borders, especially in the Canary Islands. Such border control is achieved through unilateral surveillance measures (the Integrated External Surveillance System, Spanish initials: SIVE), bilateral cooperation (inter-state agreements with Morocco and other countries in Sub-Saharan Africa) and regional cooperation within the European Union (EU). This is followed by a discussion of how immigration routes have been aff ected by increased cooperation between Spain and African States to intercept immigrants in their countries of origin or during transit. There is likewise an analysis of Spain’s use of summary returns or pushbacks following assaults or jumps on the border fences surrounding Ceuta and Melilla and attempts of arrival by swimming in Ceuta or by sea to Spanish islands and islets in North Africa, within the framework of the 1992 Spanish-Moroccan agreement on readmission of foreigners who have entered irregularly. Lastly, we argue that the reinforcement of border control alone is insufficient to curb migration flows: to be eff ective, it must be accompanied by common policies in the European countries of destination and increased investment in the countries of origin to provide their citizens with the opportunity to obtain a higher standard of living and overcome the temptation to emigrate as a first option. KEYWORDS: Immigration, Spain, West African route, Western Mediterranean route, Ceuta, Melilla, border, border control, Spanish-Moroccan agreement on readmission, Morocco, Human Rights.

  • Geopolitique de l'intelligence artificielle: Les enjeux de la rivalite sino-americaine

    L’intelligence artificielle, en tant que révolution scientifique et technologique majeure, est en train de bouleverser la configuration même de la société internationale, tout en imposant une nouvelle redéfinition de la puissance et de la conflictualité. Ainsi, dans leur course vers la domination planétaire, les Américains et les Chinois ne ménagent aucun eff ort pour asseoir leur hégémonie, en procédant à de véritables « guerres »,opérées sur diff érents fronts de la planète par leurs guerriers regroupés sous le nom de GAFAMI pour les États-Unis et BHATX pour la Chine. MOTS CLÉS: Intelligence artificielle, Chine, États unis, GAFAMI, BHATX, leadership, guerre technologique.

  • New Migrant Detention Strategies in Spain: Short-Term Assistance Centres and Internment Centres for Foreign Nationals

    Under Pedro Sánchez leadership, the Spanish Government has modified migration management in Spain, essentially in relation to arrival and reception, through the creation of new institutions for the detention of recently arrived migrants. Termed Short-Term Assistance Centres for Foreign Nationals, these new facilities have prompted a change in the role of Internment Centres for Foreign Nationals. Here, it shall be analysed the concept, creation, conditions and (non-existent) regulatory framework of these Assistance Centres and their function as regards managing migrant arrivals. I shall also explore the concomitant change in the role played by Internment Centres in migration management in Spain over the past year. KEYWORDS: Detention centres, migration, CATEs, CIEs, arrivals.

  • L'investissement direct étranger en tant que gacteur géopolitique du soft power Marocain en Afrique: Réflexion interprétative

    Les investissements directs étrangers (IDE) sont de nos jours implicitement instrumentalisés par les États, pays d’origine d’IDE, dans l’optique de provoquer une dépendance économique extérieure des pays d’accueil et ce afin de disposer d’un soft power à connotation économique dans le but de défendre in fine leurs intérêts géopolitiques. De son côté, le Maroc a fait de ses IDE intracontinentaux un instrument considérable dans le cadre de sa politique africaine notamment en devenant l’un des premiers investisseurs intra-africainsen 2016, sachant que ce statut coïncide entre autres, d’une part avec sa réintégration de l’union africaine et d’autre part avec l’accord de principe qu’il a obtenu pour intégrer la CEDEAO. À ce sujet, ce travail apportera une interprétation analytique qui essayera de décortiquer la ventilation géopolitique des investissements publics et privés marocains en Afrique. MOTS CLÉS: Investissements directs étrangers ; Maroc ; Afrique ; Soft-Power ; Géopolitique.

  • Small Island, Big Issue: Malta and its Search and Rescue Region - SAR

    Malta is located at the frontline of the Central Mediterranean route. It is a waypoint for migrants coming from the North African coast and crossing the Mediterranean, who have to pass through the Maltese search and rescue region. Malta acceded to the 1979 SAR Convention in 2002, but it has not yet signed the 2004 Amendments which clarify that the disembarkation of persons found in distress at sea must be done in a place of safety. KEYWORDS: SAR Convention - SAR region - Malta - search and rescue - place of safety.

  • The European Union and the Egyptian Neighbour: Assessing the Characterization of Resilience as an External Action Priority

    The concept of resilience acquired academic momentum and pervaded a growing number of crosscutting disciplines along the second half of the twentieth century. Drawing on its epistemological flexibility, its implicit redefinition of agency and the inclusion of the parameters of uncertainty and the inevitability of crisis in its very core, it did not take long until the fields of International Relations and foreign policy-making paid thorough attention to its potential outreach and operationalization. Nor it is surprising that the European Union, imbued in a comprehensive review of its external strategy’s flaws and shortages, embraced the term as a means to underpin the paradigmatic bridge laid by the guidance of principled pragmatism. Yet, resilience-fostering can point at states or societies, and the authoritarian nature of Egypt’s regime compels to prioritize the latter, in accordance to EU’s democratic stance. The current paper will off er a brief review of EU foreign-policy approaches vis-à-vis Egypt, an European Neighbourhood Policy/Instrument walkthrough and it will aim at putting in quantitative terms what kind of resilience is the Union placing at the forefront. To conclude, a series of recommendations will be formulated for EU resilience strategy. KEYWORDS: state/societal resilience, ENP, MENA, stability-democracy dilemma, authoritarianism, civil society, policy outputs, Annual Action Programmes.

  • Diffusion Of Research Results Of Public International Law And International Relations: ?Research Projects On Immigration And Human Rights: CIMCETT PROJECT'
  • ¿Sobrevivirá el Plan Mares al Plan Integral de Seguridad Marítima? La falta de doctrina estratégica española hacia el área del Estrecho de Gibraltar

    La aprobación del nuevo Plan de Acción de Seguridad Marítima por parte del Consejo de Seguridad Nacional plantea la necesidad de revisar el Plan Integral de Seguridad Marítima para el estrecho de Gibraltar, denominado Plan MARES y, en base a él, elaborar un Plan Integral de Seguridad Marítima que abarque todos los espacios marítimos de soberanía nacional. No queda claro, sin embargo, si el Plan MARES sobrevivirá al Plan Integral propuesto o quedará como un anexo a este último. A lo largo de las últimas décadas, la relevancia del Estrecho en los documentos político-estratégicos ha seguido una línea en forma de diente de sierra, con altos y bajos, lo que ha impedido que se elaborara una doctrina coherente y constante en torno a este espacio de relevancia estratégica internacional. Esa misma falta de coherencia se ha constatado también con el nombramiento de una Autoridad de Coordinación para luchar contra la inmigración irregular en el Estrecho al margen del Sistema de Seguridad Nacional. PALABRAS CLAVE: Plan MARES, Estrecho de Gibraltar, Plan de Acción de Seguridad Marítima, Estrategia Nacional de Seguridad Marítima, Estrategia de Seguridad Nacional.

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