• Paix et Sécurité Internationales

Editeur:
Universidad de Cádiz
Date de publication:
2020-03-06

Documents les plus récents

  • OANTA, G.A. (coord.), El Derecho del mar y las personas y grupos vulnerables, Bosch Editor, Barcelona, 2018
  • Water Resources Management in Central Asia and its Role in the Emergence of Conflicts Affecting Regional Stability

    This paper draws from the situation of imbalance in the use of water resources among the Central Asian States, in a context marked by a deep dichotomy between two competing uses of water -irrigation and the production of hydroelectric energy. From the perspective of water resources management, the hydrographic and geopolitical complexity of the region is unquestionable and has been found in the cause of several interstate conflicts, which are frequently aggravated by important environmental challenges. From there, this paper discusses the adequacy of the international regulatory framework to guarantee the sustainable governance of water resources in the region. The impact of multilateral conventions in the region is analysed, as well as the development of a series of bilateral agreements that have actually maintained the status quo. This situation has worsened due to the low consistency and eff ectiveness of the regional institutions created by these same agreements. From a regional perspective, the situation in the countries of Central Asia off ers an exceptional case for analysis. It is an area with significant security risks due to the widespread lack of governance over the use of water resources, which are unevenly distributed between the Central Asian States, and have undergone alarming environmental degradation in recent years. Although this situation could represent a major opportunity for the development of interstate cooperation, the upshot will depend to a large extent on the capacity of political institutions in the region to manage these resources in a way that is both environmentally and politically sustainable. KEY WORDS: Central Asia, international waters, international security, energy

  • The Recent Land and Maritime Delimitation of the Court of The Hague in the Affairs of Costa Rica v. Nicaragua, in Light of their Proposals

    Costa Rica and Nicaragua, that rarely reach direct agreements, had not delimited the maritime areas in the Caribbean Sea and the Pacific Ocean, nor the land boundary in the northern part of Isla Portillos. Thus, Costa Rica first initiated an action in the International Court of Justice in 2014 regarding the maritime issue, and later, in 2017, requested the definition of the land boundary of that area in Isla Portillos and that it be noted that Nicaragua had set up a new military camp on its beach. This text – in view of the parties’ proposals - will analyze the recent judgment of the Court in the joined procedures, studying the proceedings followed, the relevant geography and history, the theses of the Parties and the reasoning of the Court. KEY WORDS: International Court of Justice, res judicata, territorial and maritime delimitation, methodologies to delimit territorial sea, exclusive economic zone and continental shelf.

  • Mutualisation des puissances et securite en Afrique: pour une approche neopragmatiste du role du Droit

    Le droit est, depuis la seconde moitié du XXème siècle, l’instrument principal à travers lequel s’opèrent les intégrations régionales, notamment en matière sécuritaire. En Afrique, la question de la sécurité collective est une préoccupation essentielle présente dès l’avènement des Etats postcoloniaux qui ont tenté d’apporter des réponses. Mais depuis la création de l’Union africaine, ces réponses ont pris une forme nouvelle caractérisée par deux traits: l’usage du droit pour mettre la puissance des Etats-leaders au service de l’action collective en matière sécuritaire ; et l’instrumentalisation par ces Etats des mécanismes juridico-institutionnels collectifs au service de leur propre influence. C’est cette double utilisation contradictoire du droit international dans la construction de la sécurité collective en Afrique que la présente contribution entend analyser. A cet égard, elle mettra en lumière les manifestations de ce phénomène et ses impacts sur le processus de construction de la sécurité collective en Afrique. Elle tentera de montrer qu’une telle utilisation contradictoire du droit dénote de sa nature indéterminée. A partir de ce constat, l’étude soulignera la nécessité de dépasser les impacts de cette double utilisation du droit à travers l’adoption d’une approche néopragmatiste de l’utilisation du droit international en Afrique. MOTS CLES: Union Africaine - Conseil de Paix et de Sécurité – Utilisation - Droit international africain – Néopragmatiste.

  • Refugee Crisis and Migrations at the Gates of Europe: Deterritoriality, Extraterritoriality and Externalization of Border Controls

    The refugee crisis has shaped a new perception of the migration reality in Europe. The ramifications of its impact on European integration are visible and enduring. The EU’s response has included a certain strategic perspective, albeit weighed down by an excess of eurocentrism and a security perception that does not take third countries’ interests into balanced account. The major economic eff ort being made supports a far-reaching strategy, only now beginning to be outlined, to promote economic development in the countries of origin and transit of migrants. Additionally, issues such as the monitoring of respect for migrants’ human rights have not yet been suitably globally defined in this strategy. Although the behaviour and response capacity of the EU and its Member States can be assessed in diff erent ways, the truth is that the migration debate has decisively swayed a block of countries that are openly reluctant to engage in intra-European solidarity and accept the new realities and responsibilities entailed by the refugees already present and yet to come to Europe. This position is very negative in the medium and long term, since, as noted, the crisis has also underscored the permanence of migration trends and flows and the consolidation of the routes or gates of entry to Europe. This contribution considers the vulnerability of the European borders designed and in operation in the Schengen Area. The internal borders were the most aff ected at the start of the migration crisis and are likely to be marked by current regulatory changes, which tend to allow exceptionality as a relatively common occurrence in the European ‘federal’ area of free movement. Nevertheless, the resilience of this system of the absence of internal border controls in the ‘federal’ area of free movement is undeniable. KEYWORDS: European Union, immigration, refugees, asylum, European values, border controls, immigration controls, migration policy, borders, internal borders, external borders, Frontex, maritime immigration, externalization, extraterritoriality, deterritoriality, human rights

  • The Instruments of Pre-Border Control in the EU: A New Source of Vulnerability for Asylum Seekers?

    Lecturer (Profesora Doctora Encargada) in International Law and International Organizations, University of Deusto. The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Commission’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007- 2013) under the Grant Agreement FRAME (project n° 320000). This article draws from The protection of vulnerable individuals in the context of EU policies on border checks, asylum and immigration, FRAME Deliverable No. 11.3 available at .

  • Immigration In Spain: Migratory Routes, Cooperation With Third Countries And Human Rights In Return Procedures

    Following a brief overview of immigration in Spain, the present paper first analyses the main routes of irregular immigration into Spain, giving recent data on the number of arrivals by sea and land to the Iberian Peninsula, Balearic Islands, Canary Islands and Spanish territories in North Africa. The sea has traditionally been the main route of entry to Spanish territory for immigrants primarily from Sub-Saharan Africa. However, the years 2013 to 2015 proved an exception to this rule, with immigration by land outstripping that by sea due to an increase in the arrival of Syrian immigrants to the cities of Ceuta and above all Melilla. Next, a description is given of the political and operational mechanisms established by the Spanish authorities to control Spain’s maritime borders, especially in the Canary Islands. Such border control is achieved through unilateral surveillance measures (the Integrated External Surveillance System, Spanish initials: SIVE), bilateral cooperation (inter-state agreements with Morocco and other countries in Sub-Saharan Africa) and regional cooperation within the European Union (EU). This is followed by a discussion of how immigration routes have been aff ected by increased cooperation between Spain and African States to intercept immigrants in their countries of origin or during transit. There is likewise an analysis of Spain’s use of summary returns or pushbacks following assaults or jumps on the border fences surrounding Ceuta and Melilla and attempts of arrival by swimming in Ceuta or by sea to Spanish islands and islets in North Africa, within the framework of the 1992 Spanish-Moroccan agreement on readmission of foreigners who have entered irregularly. Lastly, we argue that the reinforcement of border control alone is insufficient to curb migration flows: to be eff ective, it must be accompanied by common policies in the European countries of destination and increased investment in the countries of origin to provide their citizens with the opportunity to obtain a higher standard of living and overcome the temptation to emigrate as a first option. KEYWORDS: Immigration, Spain, West African route, Western Mediterranean route, Ceuta, Melilla, border, border control, Spanish-Moroccan agreement on readmission, Morocco, Human Rights.

  • Geopolitique de l'intelligence artificielle: Les enjeux de la rivalite sino-americaine

    L’intelligence artificielle, en tant que révolution scientifique et technologique majeure, est en train de bouleverser la configuration même de la société internationale, tout en imposant une nouvelle redéfinition de la puissance et de la conflictualité. Ainsi, dans leur course vers la domination planétaire, les Américains et les Chinois ne ménagent aucun eff ort pour asseoir leur hégémonie, en procédant à de véritables « guerres »,opérées sur diff érents fronts de la planète par leurs guerriers regroupés sous le nom de GAFAMI pour les États-Unis et BHATX pour la Chine. MOTS CLÉS: Intelligence artificielle, Chine, États unis, GAFAMI, BHATX, leadership, guerre technologique.

  • New Migrant Detention Strategies in Spain: Short-Term Assistance Centres and Internment Centres for Foreign Nationals

    Under Pedro Sánchez leadership, the Spanish Government has modified migration management in Spain, essentially in relation to arrival and reception, through the creation of new institutions for the detention of recently arrived migrants. Termed Short-Term Assistance Centres for Foreign Nationals, these new facilities have prompted a change in the role of Internment Centres for Foreign Nationals. Here, it shall be analysed the concept, creation, conditions and (non-existent) regulatory framework of these Assistance Centres and their function as regards managing migrant arrivals. I shall also explore the concomitant change in the role played by Internment Centres in migration management in Spain over the past year. KEYWORDS: Detention centres, migration, CATEs, CIEs, arrivals.

  • L'investissement direct étranger en tant que gacteur géopolitique du soft power Marocain en Afrique: Réflexion interprétative

    Les investissements directs étrangers (IDE) sont de nos jours implicitement instrumentalisés par les États, pays d’origine d’IDE, dans l’optique de provoquer une dépendance économique extérieure des pays d’accueil et ce afin de disposer d’un soft power à connotation économique dans le but de défendre in fine leurs intérêts géopolitiques. De son côté, le Maroc a fait de ses IDE intracontinentaux un instrument considérable dans le cadre de sa politique africaine notamment en devenant l’un des premiers investisseurs intra-africainsen 2016, sachant que ce statut coïncide entre autres, d’une part avec sa réintégration de l’union africaine et d’autre part avec l’accord de principe qu’il a obtenu pour intégrer la CEDEAO. À ce sujet, ce travail apportera une interprétation analytique qui essayera de décortiquer la ventilation géopolitique des investissements publics et privés marocains en Afrique. MOTS CLÉS: Investissements directs étrangers ; Maroc ; Afrique ; Soft-Power ; Géopolitique.

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