• Journal of Money Laundering Control

Publisher:
Emerald Group Publishing Limited
Publication date:
2011-12-21
ISBN:
1368-5201

Latest documents

  • Canada’s financial intelligence unit: FINTRAC

    Purpose International bodies, such as the Financial Action Task Force , have mandated the use of financial intelligence units (FIU) to address organized crime and money laundering. The purpose of this paper is to examine Canada’s FIU, the Financial Transactions and Reports Analysis Centre of Canada (FINTRAC), and explore its current effectiveness and future challenges. Design/methodology/approach This paper examines FIUs in general and then looks more specifically at Canada’s FIU, its policy and legislative basis as well as future challenges for the FIU. Findings The challenge money laundering poses to society is a mirror of the challenge that organized crime poses: a test of the values and the importance of rule of law. The FIU is an important mechanism to address this challenge generally, and there are important changes in the environment that must be addressed if the future policy objectives of the FIU are to be met. Research limitations/implications Some of the policy nostrums that are baked into the anti-money laundering system, such as placement, layering and integration, need to be revisited and researched to incorporate changes in the licit and illicit marketplaces. Practical implications Financial institutions and other intermediaries must comply with domestic anti-money laundering laws. Compliance is always contextual, and this paper will outline the role of the regulator and the environmental challenges that need to be met. Social implications Effectively addressing money laundering and organized crime is critical to the maintenance of rule of law and the protection of the financial system. Originality/value This is a brief but very fulsome review of Canada’s FIU, FINTRAC, which captures broader challenges in addressing money laundering, economic crime and regulatory systems designed to protect rule of law and the integrity of the financial system. The paper not only examines the current state of the FIU but also explores challenges on the horizon.

  • Canada’s financial intelligence unit: FINTRAC

    Purpose International bodies, such as the Financial Action Task Force , have mandated the use of financial intelligence units (FIU) to address organized crime and money laundering. The purpose of this paper is to examine Canada’s FIU, the Financial Transactions and Reports Analysis Centre of Canada (FINTRAC), and explore its current effectiveness and future challenges. Design/methodology/approach This paper examines FIUs in general and then looks more specifically at Canada’s FIU, its policy and legislative basis as well as future challenges for the FIU. Findings The challenge money laundering poses to society is a mirror of the challenge that organized crime poses: a test of the values and the importance of rule of law. The FIU is an important mechanism to address this challenge generally, and there are important changes in the environment that must be addressed if the future policy objectives of the FIU are to be met. Research limitations/implications Some of the policy nostrums that are baked into the anti-money laundering system, such as placement, layering and integration, need to be revisited and researched to incorporate changes in the licit and illicit marketplaces. Practical implications Financial institutions and other intermediaries must comply with domestic anti-money laundering laws. Compliance is always contextual, and this paper will outline the role of the regulator and the environmental challenges that need to be met. Social implications Effectively addressing money laundering and organized crime is critical to the maintenance of rule of law and the protection of the financial system. Originality/value This is a brief but very fulsome review of Canada’s FIU, FINTRAC, which captures broader challenges in addressing money laundering, economic crime and regulatory systems designed to protect rule of law and the integrity of the financial system. The paper not only examines the current state of the FIU but also explores challenges on the horizon.

  • Seeking economic cyber security: a Middle Eastern example

    Purpose The transformation of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) into an important global economic player has been accompanied by digitalization that has also left it at a risk to cybercrime. Concurrent with the rise in technology use, the UAE fast became one of the most targeted countries in the world. The purpose of this paper is to discuss how the UAE has tried to cope with accelerating levels of cyber threat using legislative and regulatory efforts as well as public- and private-sector initiatives meant to raise cybersecurity awareness. Design/methodology/approach The paper surveys the UAE’s cybersecurity legislative, regulatory and educational initiatives from 2003 to 2019. Findings Because the human factor still remains the number one reason for security breaches, robust cyber laws alone are not enough to protect against cyber threats. Building public awareness and educating internet users about cyber risks and safety have become essential components of the UAE's efforts in building a more secure cyber environment for the country. Research limitations/implications The paper relies on English-language translations of primary sources (laws) originally in Arabic, as well as English-language studies from local media. This should not be considered a problem, as English is established as the language of business and commerce in the UAE. Practical implications The paper provides a detailed overview of the country’s cybersecurity environment to guide and aide practitioners with risk assessment and legal and regulatory compliance. Originality/value The paper presents a comprehensive overview of the UAE’s cybersecurity legislative, regulatory and educational environment. It also surveys government and private sector initiatives directed in protecting the country’s cyberspace.

  • Seeking economic cyber security: a Middle Eastern example

    Purpose The transformation of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) into an important global economic player has been accompanied by digitalization that has also left it at a risk to cybercrime. Concurrent with the rise in technology use, the UAE fast became one of the most targeted countries in the world. The purpose of this paper is to discuss how the UAE has tried to cope with accelerating levels of cyber threat using legislative and regulatory efforts as well as public- and private-sector initiatives meant to raise cybersecurity awareness. Design/methodology/approach The paper surveys the UAE’s cybersecurity legislative, regulatory and educational initiatives from 2003 to 2019. Findings Because the human factor still remains the number one reason for security breaches, robust cyber laws alone are not enough to protect against cyber threats. Building public awareness and educating internet users about cyber risks and safety have become essential components of the UAE's efforts in building a more secure cyber environment for the country. Research limitations/implications The paper relies on English-language translations of primary sources (laws) originally in Arabic, as well as English-language studies from local media. This should not be considered a problem, as English is established as the language of business and commerce in the UAE. Practical implications The paper provides a detailed overview of the country’s cybersecurity environment to guide and aide practitioners with risk assessment and legal and regulatory compliance. Originality/value The paper presents a comprehensive overview of the UAE’s cybersecurity legislative, regulatory and educational environment. It also surveys government and private sector initiatives directed in protecting the country’s cyberspace.

  • Editorial
  • Editorial
  • A causal model of the declaration intention of banks for suspected money-laundering transactions based on organizational commitment perspective

    Purpose Anti-money laundering has attracted much global attention, driving banks to invest in the establishment of suspicious transaction report mechanisms for the declaration of suspicious transactions. However, very few studies discuss how to influence bank employees to proactively declare suspicious transactions. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to, based on an organizational commitment perspective, establish a causal model that can assist banks to identify key factors affecting the intention to declare suspicious transactions. Design/methodology/approach This study first summarized five factors - regulatory focus, organization climate, situational constraints, personality traits and role stress - and their composition constructs as the basis for measurements. An interview-based survey of nine Taiwanese banks was conducted. Then, this study adopted the decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory method to analyse the interplay between the five factors to identify the causal model and to explore the differences in the effects of the key factors, arising from the different organizational and job patterns, on the intention to declare suspicious transactions. Findings The results show that regulatory focus and organizational climate are the most important causal factors affecting employees’ intention to declare suspicious transactions, whereas role stress and personality traits are the most influenced effect factors. In addition, this study also confirmed that under different organizational and job patterns, the understanding of employees will change. Originality/value This paper provides insight into the interplay between the five factors based on an organizational commitment perspective. The findings can assist banks in managing and monitoring the implementation of the suspicious transaction report mechanism.

  • A causal model of the declaration intention of banks for suspected money-laundering transactions based on organizational commitment perspective

    Purpose Anti-money laundering has attracted much global attention, driving banks to invest in the establishment of suspicious transaction report mechanisms for the declaration of suspicious transactions. However, very few studies discuss how to influence bank employees to proactively declare suspicious transactions. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to, based on an organizational commitment perspective, establish a causal model that can assist banks to identify key factors affecting the intention to declare suspicious transactions. Design/methodology/approach This study first summarized five factors – regulatory focus, organization climate, situational constraints, personality traits and role stress – and their composition constructs as the basis for measurements. An interview-based survey of nine Taiwanese banks was conducted. Then, this study adopted the decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory method to analyse the interplay between the five factors to identify the causal model and to explore the differences in the effects of the key factors, arising from the different organizational and job patterns, on the intention to declare suspicious transactions. Findings The results show that regulatory focus and organizational climate are the most important causal factors affecting employees’ intention to declare suspicious transactions, whereas role stress and personality traits are the most influenced effect factors. In addition, this study also confirmed that under different organizational and job patterns, the understanding of employees will change. Originality/value This paper provides insight into the interplay between the five factors based on an organizational commitment perspective. The findings can assist banks in managing and monitoring the implementation of the suspicious transaction report mechanism.

  • Challenges of accountability in Nigeria: the role of deposit money bank

    Purpose The unhealthy drive for deposit in the banking sector has pushed many banks into unethical practices, thereby resulting in high-level corruption cases in the banking sector. The purpose of this study is to investigate the short- and long-run linkages between bank net interest income and deposit liabilities interacted with corruption, to establish the influence of corruption in deposit mobilisation drive of banks in Nigeria. Also, the study analysed the causal relationship between selected bank variables and fraud. Design/methodology/approach The study used quarterly data on selected variables from 1Q 1993 to 4Q 2017 sourced from Nigerian Deposit Insurance Corporation (NDIC) annual reports and Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) Statistical Bulletin of various issues. Deposit Money Bank various deposit liabilities are interacted with a corruption index and used as the independent variables, while bank earnings serve as the dependent variable. Error Correction Model (ECM) and Engel Granger approach to co-integration technique were used to analyse the data. Findings The findings reveal that various bank deposit liabilities interacted with corruption index has a negative effect on bank profitability in the long run, though only corrupt fixed deposit is statistically significant at the 5 per cent significance level. Bank total asset, total loan and advances and fraud have a significant effect on bank profitability at 1 and 10 per cent significance level. The findings also reveal that banks profit from corrupt fixed deposit and demand deposit in the short run. Social implications Text Originality/value The literature is awash with bank lending corruption and various institutional factors such as competition among banks, credit bureau and information sharing about borrowers, bank supervisory policies, loan loss provisioning, bank ownership structure and regulatory environment and anti-corruption measures. The aspect of deposit mobilisation and corruption has not been well researched in literature; this study, therefore, fills the gap in the literature by examining the extent deposit money banks contributed to corruption in Nigeria through their cutthroat deposit mobilisation drive.

  • Challenges of accountability in Nigeria: the role of deposit money bank

    Purpose The unhealthy drive for deposit in the banking sector has pushed many banks into unethical practices, thereby resulting in high-level corruption cases in the banking sector. The purpose of this study is to investigate the short- and long-run linkages between bank net interest income and deposit liabilities interacted with corruption, to establish the influence of corruption in deposit mobilisation drive of banks in Nigeria. Also, the study analysed the causal relationship between selected bank variables and fraud. Design/methodology/approach The study used quarterly data on selected variables from 1Q 1993 to 4Q 2017 sourced from Nigerian Deposit Insurance Corporation (NDIC) annual reports and Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) Statistical Bulletin of various issues. Deposit Money Bank various deposit liabilities are interacted with a corruption index and used as the independent variables, while bank earnings serve as the dependent variable. Error Correction Model (ECM) and Engel Granger approach to co-integration technique were used to analyse the data. Findings The findings reveal that various bank deposit liabilities interacted with corruption index has a negative effect on bank profitability in the long run, though only corrupt fixed deposit is statistically significant at the 5 per cent significance level. Bank total asset, total loan and advances and fraud have a significant effect on bank profitability at 1 and 10 per cent significance level. The findings also reveal that banks profit from corrupt fixed deposit and demand deposit in the short run. Social implications Text Originality/value The literature is awash with bank lending corruption and various institutional factors such as competition among banks, credit bureau and information sharing about borrowers, bank supervisory policies, loan loss provisioning, bank ownership structure and regulatory environment and anti-corruption measures. The aspect of deposit mobilisation and corruption has not been well researched in literature; this study, therefore, fills the gap in the literature by examining the extent deposit money banks contributed to corruption in Nigeria through their cutthroat deposit mobilisation drive.

Featured documents